Keywords: gene drive guidance

A cross-sectional survey of biosafety professionals regarding genetically modified insects

O’Brochta, D. A., W. K. Tonui, B. Dass and S. James,  Applied Biosafety,  2019:1-9. 2019.
Background:Genetic technologies such as gene editing and gene drive create challenges for existing frameworks used to assess risk and make regulatory determinations by governments and institutions. Insect genetic technologies including transgenics, gene editing, and gene drive ...
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A Framework for the risk assessment and management of gene drive technology in contained use

van der Vlugt, CJBB, David D.; Lehmann, Kathleen; Leunda, Amaya; Willemarck, Nicolas,  Applied Biosafety,  23:25-31. 2018.
The utilisation of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology has sparked a renewed interest in gene drive mechanisms. These mechanisms of biased inheritance may yield promising applications in the fields of vector control and nature conservation. However, the same properties that will enable ...
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A transatlantic perspective on 20 emerging issues in biological engineering

Wintle, BCB, C. R.; Rhodes, C.; Molloy, J. C.; Millett, P.; Adam, L.; Breitling, R.; Carlson, R.; Casagrande, R.; Dando, M.; Doubleday, R.; Drexler, E.; Edwards, B.; Ellis, T.; Evans, N. G.; Hammond, R.; Haseloff, J.; Kahl, L.; Kuiken, T.; Lichman, B. R.; Matthewman, C. A.; Napier, J. A.; OhEigeartaigh, S. S.; Patron, N. J.; Perello, E.; Shapira, P.; Tait, J.; Takano, E.; Sutherland, W. J.,  eLife,  6:21. 2017.
Advances in biological engineering are likely to have substantial impacts on global society. To explore these potential impacts we ran a horizon scanning exercise to capture a range of perspectives on the opportunities and risks presented by biological engineering. We first ...
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A typology of community and stakeholder engagement based on documented examples in the field of novel vector control

C. E. Schairer, R. Taitingfong, O. S. Akbari and C. S. Bloss,  PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases,  13:e0007863. 2019.
Background Despite broad consensus on the importance of community and stakeholder engagement (CSE) for guiding the development, regulation, field testing, and deployment of emerging vector control technologies (such as genetically engineered insects), the types of activities ...
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Adaptive risk management of gene drive experiments: Biosafety, biosecurity, and ethics

Lunshof, JEB, A.,  Applied Biosafety,  22:97-103. 2017.
Emerging technologies in the life sciences call for new models of biosafety risk management. We examine the question of how to; address new developments in the life sciences and biosciences in a bottom-up manner—that is, from the concrete level of; biosafety practice with a ...
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Advances in vector control science: Rear-and-release strategies show promise… but don’t forget the basics

Ritchie, SAJ, B. J.,  Journal of Infectious Diseases,  215:S103-S108. 2017.
Both chikungunya and Zika viruses have recently swept from Africa across the Pacific to the Americas, causing major outbreaks of disease in humans. In the meantime, dengue epidemics continue throughout the tropics. Traditional vector control programs based on strategies from ...
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An introduction to the proceedings of the environmental release of engineered pests: Building an international governance framewor

Brown, Z. S., L. Carter and F. Gould,  BMC Proceedings,  12:10. 2018.
In October 2016, a two-day meeting of 65 academic, government and industry professionals was held at North Carolina State University for early-stage discussions about the international governance of gene drives: potentially powerful new technologies that can be used for the ...
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An overview of OECD activities related to modern techniques of biotechnology and genome editing

Kearns, P,  Transgenic Research,  28:41-44. 2019.
Since commercial use of genetically-engineered (genetically- modified) plants started in 1996, many agricultural products have been developed to improve crop traits. The foods and feeds derived from these commodities have drastically increased worldwide. However, answering health ...
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Anticipating complexity in the deployment of gene drive insects in agriculture

Baltzegar, JCB, Jessica; Elsensohn, Johanna E.; Gutzmann, Nicole; Jones, Michael S.; King, Sheron; Sudweeks, Jayce,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S81-S97. 2018.
Insects cause substantial losses to agricultural crops each yearand require intensive management approaches. Genetic pestmanagement has emerged as a viable, non-chemical alternative formanaging insect pests. The development of engineered genedrives for agricultural use is ...
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Articulating ‘free, prior and informed consent’ (FPIC) for engineered gene drives

George, D. R., T. Kuiken and J. A. Delborne,  Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences,  286:20191484.. 2019.
Recent statements by United Nations bodies point to free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) as a potential requirement in the development of engineered gene drive applications. As a concept developed in the context of protecting Indigenous rights to self-determination in land ...
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Beyond Mendelian genetics: Anticipatory biomedical ethics and policy implications for the use of CRISPR together with gene drive in humans.

M. W. Nestor and R. L. Wilson,  Journal of Bioethical Inquiry,  2020:1-12. 2020.
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) genome editing has already reinvented the direction of genetic and stem cell research. For more complex diseases it allows scientists to simultaneously create multiple genetic changes to a single cell. ...
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Can systematic reviews inform GMO risk assessment and risk management?

Kohl, CF, G.; Sweet, J.; Spok, A.; Haddaway, N.R.; Wilhelm, R.; Unger, S.; Schiemann, J.,  Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology,  3:113. 2015.
Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize, and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and ...
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Can We Engineer Social Ecosystems?

TEDxCambridgeSalon,  ,  2018.
Kevin Esvelt is director of the Sculpting Evolution group, which invents new ways to study and influence the evolution of ecosystems. By carefully developing and testing these methods with openness and humility, the group seeks to address difficult ecological problems for the ...
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Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity,  Convention on Biodiversity,  2000:1-19. 2000.
The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement which aims to ensure the safe handling, transport and use of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on ...
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Community engagement and field trials of genetically modified insects and animals

Neuhaus, C. P.,  Hastings Center Report,  48:25-36. 2018.
New techniques for the genetic modification of organisms are creating new strategies for addressing persistent public health challenges. For example, the company Oxitec has conducted field trials internationally?and has attempted to conduct field trials in the United States?of a ...
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Concerning RNA-guided gene drives for the alteration of wild populations

Esvelt, KMS, Andrea L.; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Church, George M.,  eLife,  3:e03401. 2014.
Gene drives may be capable of addressing ecological problems by altering entire; populations of wild organisms, but their use has remained largely theoretical due to technical; constraints. Here we consider the potential for RNA-guided gene drives based on the CRISPR; nuclease ...
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Considerations for the governance of gene drive organisms

Rudenko, LP, Megan J.; Oye, Kenneth,  Pathogens and Global Health,  112:162-181. 2018.
Governance is a broader and more flexible concept than statute-driven regulations as it incorporates components outside the latter?s remit. Considerations of governance are critical in the development of emerging biotechnologies such as gene drive organisms. These have been ...
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Considerations for the governance of gene drive organisms

Rudenko, L.P., Megan J.; Oye, Kenneth,  Pathogens and Global Health,  2018.
Governance is a broader and more flexible concept than statute-driven regulations as it incorporates components outside the latter?s remit. Considerations of governance are critical in the development of emerging biotechnologies such as gene drive organisms. These have been ...
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CRISPR ethics: Moral considerations for applications of a powerful tool

Brokowski, C. and Adli, M.,  Journal of Molecular Biology,  431:88-101. 2019.
With the emergence of CRISPR technology, targeted editing of a wide variety of genomes is no longer an abstract hypothetical, but occurs regularly. As application areas of CRISPR are exceeding beyond research and biomedical therapies, new and existing ethical concerns abound ...
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CRISPR in sub-Saharan Africa: Applications and education

Ogaugwu, CEA, S. O.; Adekoya, M. A.,  Trends in Biotechnology,  37:234-237. 2019.
Clustered regularly interspaced shortpalindromicrepeats (CRISPR) technology has enabled genetic engineering feats previously considered impracticable, offering great hopes for solutions to problems facing society. We consider it timely to highlight how CRISPR can benefit public ...
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CRISPR-Cas9. The greatest advancement in genetic edition techniques requires an ethical reflection

Gomez-Tatay, LA, J.,  Cuadernos De Bioetica,  30:171-185. 2019.
The adaptation of the CRISPR system as a genetic editing tool has led to a revolution in many fields of application, as this technique is considerably faster, easier to perform and more efficient than predecessor techniques. However, some of these applications raise objective ...
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Current CRISPR gene drive systems are likely to be highly invasive in wild populations

Noble, CA, Ben; Church, George M.; Esvelt, Kevin M.; Nowak, Martin A.,  eLife,  7:e33423. 2018.
Recent reports have suggested that self-propagating CRISPR-based gene drive systems are unlikely to efficiently invade wild populations due to drive-resistant alleles that prevent cutting. Here we develop mathematical models based on existing empirical data to explicitly test ...
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Deployment of innovative genetic vector control strategies: progress on regulatory and biosafety aspects, capacity building and development of best-practice guidance

Beech, CV, S.S.; Quinlan, M.M.; Capurro, Margareth L.; Alphey, L.; Bayard, V.; Bouare, M.; McLeod, M.C.; Kittayapong, P.; Lavery, J.; Lim, L.H.; Marrelli, M.T.; Nagaraju, J.; Ombongi, K.; Othman, R.Y.; Pillai, V.; Ramsey, J.; Reuben, R.; Rose, R.I.; Tyagi, B.K.; Mumford, J.,  AsPac J. Mol. Biol. Biotechnol.,  17:75-85. 2009.
In the ongoing fight against vectors of human diseases, disease endemic countries (DECs) may soon benefit from innovative control strategies involving modified insect vectors. For instance, three promising methods (viz. RIDL® [Release of Insects with a Dominant Lethal], ...
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Development of community of practice to support quantitative risk assessment for synthetic biology products: contaminant bioremediation and invasive carp control as cases

Trump, BF, C.; Rycroft, T.; Wood, M. D.; Bandolin, N.; Cains, M.; Cary, T.; Crocker, F.; Friedenberg, N. A.; Gurian, P.; Hamilton, K.; Hoover, J.J.; Meyer, C.; Pokrzywinski, K.; Ritterson, R.; Schulte, P.; Warner, C. ; Perkins, E.; Linkov, I.,  Environmental Systems and Decisions,  38:517-527. 2018.
Synthetic biology has the potential for a broad array of applications. However, realization of this potential is challenged by the paucity of relevant data for conventional risk assessment protocols, a limitation due to to the relative nascence of the field, as well as the poorly ...
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Editing nature: Local roots of global governance

Kofler, NC, James P.; Kuzma, Jennifer; Marris, Emma; Esvelt, Kevin; Nelson, Michael Paul; Newhouse, Andrew; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Vigliotti, Vivian S.; Semenov, Misha; Jacobsen, Rowan; Dahlman, James E.; Prince, Shannon; Caccone, Adalgisa; Brown, Timothy; Schmitz, Oswald J.,  Science,  362:527. 2018.
The end of malaria. Restored island habitats. Resiliency for species threatened by climate change. Many envisioned environmental applications of newly developed gene-editing techniques such as CRISPR might provide profound benefits for ecosystems and society. But depending on the ...
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Editing nature: Local roots of global governance

Kofler, N.C., James P.; Kuzma, Jennifer; Marris, Emma; Esvelt, Kevin; Nelson, Michael Paul; Newhouse, Andrew; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Vigliotti, Vivian S.; Semenov, Misha; Jacobsen, Rowan; Dahlman, James E.; Prince, Shannon; Caccone, Adalgisa; Brown, Timothy,  Science,  2018.

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Efforts to enhance safety measures for CRISPR/Cas-based gene drive technology in Japan

T. Tanaka, N. Tanaka, Y. Nagano, H. Kanuka, D. S. Yamamoto, N. Yamamoto, E. Nanba and T. Nishiuch,  Journal of Environment and Safety,  2019.
Gene drive is a powerful system that can spread a desirable genetic trait into an entire species and/or population of a certain region, bypassing Mendelian rules of inheritance. Recently, one of the genome editing technologies, CRISPR/Cas, has been developed, making it easier to ...
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Engineering the wild: Gene drives and intergenerational equity

J. Kuzma and L. Rawls,  Jurimetrics,  56:279-296. 2016.
New genetic engineering methods are allowing scientists to insert genes into organisms that have the potential to spread themselves throughout natural populations upon the release of individuals carrying those genes. Gene drive technology is being researched and developed for ...
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EU Adopts Negotiating Position for 2018 Biodiversity Conference

Tsioumani, E,  International Institute for Sustainable Development,  2018.
The Council of the EU calls for increased efforts to fully achieve the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, and for the adoption of an ambitious follow-up to the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, to strengthen implementation of the CBD and its Protocols, as well as of other ...
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Evaluating the Probability of CRISPR-based Gene Drive Contaminating Another Species

Courtier-Orgogozo, VD, Antoine; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Boëte, Christophe,  bioRxiv,  776609:27. 2019.
The probability D that a given CRISPR-based gene drive element contaminates another, non-target species can be estimated by the following Drive Risk Assessment Quantitative Estimate (DRAQUE) Equation: D = (hyb+transf).express.cut.flank.immune.nonextinct withhyb = probability of ...
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Existing rules cover gene-drive usage

Strassheim, SS, W.,  Nature,  554:169. 2018.
Gene-drive technology is not; unregulated, as you imply; (Nature 552, 6; 2017). Because; it involves genetically modified; (GM) organisms, it is covered in; countries that have regulations; on gene modification and; internationally by the Cartagena; Protocol on Biosafety.
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Existing rules cover gene-drive usage

Strassheim, S.S., W.,  Nature,  2018.

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Forcing the Farm

etc group,  etc group,  2018.
This report is being issued as an alert to governments, civil society organisations and grassroots movements. It points to how gene drives, while promoted as a tool for medicine and conservation, will find their real use in food and farming by agribusiness. It calls for a pause ...
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Gene Drive 101: A Basic Guidance Resource for Biosafety Professionals

Krishnan, PG, David,  Applied Biosafety,  22:181-184. 2017.
Biosafety risk assessment and containment framework strategies for research involving gene drives pose a challenge, as there are no published guidelines or regulatory information yet written specifically addressing biosafety and gene drive use. Since the risk is more at an ...
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Gene drive gone wild: exploring deliberative possibilities by developing One Health ethics

Capps, B,  Law, Innovation and Technology,  11:231-256. 2019.
Gene editing may be used to engineer organisms that are better or worse adapted to survival. Coupled with gene drives ? molecular genetic strategies that perpetuate specific phenotypes in a target species ? it would now be possible to edit wild animal populations that impact on ...
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Gene drive organisms: Warning of risks due to uncontrolled releases

Then, C,  Testbiotech,  2018.
The German Ministry for the Environment has in response to an open letter sent by several civil society organisations issued a statement very critical of genetically engineered organisms carrying a so-called gene drive. The ministry announced that it will take action on an ...
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Gene drive organisms: What Africa should know about actors, motives and threats to biodiversity and food systems

Sirinathsinghji, E.,  African Centre for Biodiversity.,  2019.
In this briefing paper, we set out the key issues that our governments should have addressed with African civil society before endorsing positions and setting the benchmark for Africa-wide policy. In this regard, we point out that, while the impetus for the AU position might well ...
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Gene drive research: Why it matters

The Royal Society,  Royal Society Statement,  2018.
Gene drives are systems that bias the inheritance of a particular DNA sequence. Many such systems occur naturally and scientists are now investigating the potential to develop new ones using synthetic biology techniques. Synthetic gene drives are being developed for a range of ...
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Gene Drive Technology

Rick Weiss,  SciLine,  2018.
Gene drives represent a new take on genetic engineering offering previously impossible means of fighting disease-spreading insects and invasive species but also raising the specter of ecological disruption. This briefing reviews the current status of gene-drive technology, ...
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Gene Drive Technology: Where is the Future?

National Academy of Sciences Engineering Medicine,  BioScience Talks,  2016.
Gene drives have the potential to revolutionize approaches to major public health, conservation, and agricultural problems. For instance, gene drives might one day prevent mosquitoes from spreading a variety of deadly diseases, including Zika virus, malaria, and others. A form of ...
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Gene drive to reduce malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa

Burt, AC, Mamadou; Crisanti, Andrea; Diabate, Abdoulaye; Kayondo, Jonathan K.,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S66-S80. 2018.
Despite impressive progress, malaria continues to impose a substantial burden of mortality and morbidity, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, and new tools will be needed to achieve elimination. Gene drive is a natural process by which some genes are inherited at a ...
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Gene Drives

SciLine,  SciLine,  2018.
For many years now, scientists have been able to alter genes inside microbial, plant, and animal cells to change organisms’ traits, creating, for example, plants that produce their own protective insecticides and fish that grow to maturity almost twice as fast as normal. But ...
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Gene drives and the international biodiversity regime

F. Rabitz,  Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law,  2019.
Gene drives are genetic modifications designed for rapidly diffusing traits throughout a target population. They are currently being proposed as biological control agents to combat, for instance, invasive alien species and disease vectors. They also raise concerns regarding their ...
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Gene drives as a new quality in GMO releases-a comparative technology characterization

Friess, JLvG, A.; Giese, B.,  Peerj,  7:e6793. 2019.
Compared to previous releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) which were primarily plants, gene drives represent a paradigm shift in the handling of GMOs: Current regulation of the release of GMOs assumes that for specific periods of time a certain amount of GMOs will be ...
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Gene drives for schistosomiasis transmission control

T. Maier, N. J. Wheeler, E. K. O. Namigai, J. Tycko, R. E. Grewelle, Y. Woldeamanuel, K. Klohe, J. Perez-Saez, S. H. Sokolow, G. A. De Leo, T. P. Yoshino, M. Zamanian and J. Reinhard-Rupp,  PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases,  13:e0007833. 2019.
Schistosomiasis is one of the most important and widespread neglected tropical diseases (NTD), with over 200 million people infected in more than 70 countries; the disease has nearly 800 million people at risk in endemic areas. Although mass drug administration is a ...
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Gene drives in Africa – A Podcast

Wakeford, T.,  etc Group,  2019.
In Episode #1 ETC's Tom Wakeford speaks with Ugandan lawyer and advocate Barbara Ntambirweki about gene drives, a powerful new genetic technology that can change species in the wild and make species go extinct.
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Gene drives in our future: challenges of and opportunities for using a self-sustaining technology in pest and vector management

Collins, JP,  BMC Proceedings,  12:9. 2018.
Gene drives are systems of biased inheritance that enhance the likelihood a sequence of DNA passes between generations through sexual reproduction and potentially throughout a local population and ultimately all connected populations of a species. Gaps in our knowledge of gene ...
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Gene drives in plants: opportunities and challenges for weed control and engineered resilience

Barrett, LGL, Mathieu; Kumaran, Nagalingam; Glassop, Donna; Raghu, S.; Gardiner, Donald M.,  Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences,  286:9. 2019.
Plant species, populations and communities are under threat from climate change, invasive pathogens, weeds and habitat fragmentation. Despite considerable research effort invested in genome engineering for crop improvement, the development of genetic tools for the management of ...
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Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values

U. S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,  The National Academies Press,  2016.
Scientists have studied gene drives for more than 50 years. The development of a powerful genome editing tool in 2012, CRISPR/Cas9,1 led to recent breakthroughs in gene drive research that built on that half century’s worth of knowledge, and stimulated new discussion of the ...
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Gene Drives: A report on their science, applications, social aspects, ethics and regulations

H. Dressel,  Critical Scientists Switzerland; European Network of Scientists for Social and Environmental Responsibility; Vereinigung Deutscher Wissenschaftler,  2019.
Engineered Gene Drives are a new form of genetic modification that provides the tools for permanently modifying or potentially even eradicating species or populations in the wild. Unlike the previous genetically modified organisms (GMOs), gene drive organisms (GDOs) are not meant ...
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Gene Drives: Experience with gene drive systems that may inform an environmental risk assessment

Rüdelsheim, PKJS, G.,  COGEM,  2019.
Gene drives are genetic mechanisms that allow for a trait to be propagated throughout a population; beyond Mendelian inheritance. Active in sexually-reproducing species, they are powerful tools to “drive”; a gene, i.e. increase its frequency, independent of external selection ...
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Gene driving the farm: who decides, who owns, and who benefits?

Montenegro de Wit, M,  Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems,  43:1054-1074. 2019.
This commentary essay explores the social and ecological implications of gene-driving agriculture.
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General principles for risk assessment of living modified organisms: Lessons from chemical risk assessment

Hill, RAS, C.,  Environ. Biosafety Res,  2:81-88. 2003.
Modern biotechnology has led to the development and use of Living Modified Organisms (LMOs) for agriculture and other purposes. Regulators at the national level are increasingly depending on risk assessment as a tool for assessing potential adverse effects of LMOs on the ...
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Genetically engineered mosquitoes, Zika and other arboviruses, community engagement, costs, and patents: Ethical issues

Meghani, ZB, Christophe,  PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases,  12:e0006501. 2018.
We discuss here key ethical questions raised by the use of GE insects, with the aim of fostering discussion between the public, researchers, policy makers, healthcare organizations, and regulatory agencies at the local, national, and international levels. We affect that goal by ...
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Genetically engineering wild mice to combat Lyme disease: An ecological perspective

Snow, A. A.,  BioScience,  69:746-756. 2019.
Genetic engineering of wild populations has been proposed for reducing human diseases by altering pathogens’ hosts. For example, CRISPR- based genome editing may be used to create white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) that are resistant to the Lyme disease ...
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GM insect pests under the Brazilian regulatory framework: development and perspectives

Andrade, P. P., M. A. da Silva Ferreira, M. S. Muniz and A. de Casto Lira-Neto,  BMC Proceedings,  12:15. 2018.
The emergence of new technologies for genetic modification has broadened the range of possible new products. The regulations of many countries that could benefit from these new products may not be prepared to assess risks and enable science-based decision-making. This is ...
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Governing extinction in the era of gene editing

Monast, JJ,  North Carolina Law Review,  97:1329-1358. 2019.
CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing technology (“CRISPR”) offers a potential solution for some of the world’s critical conservation challenges. Scientists are harnessing CRISPR to expand genetic diversity of endangered species, control invasive species, or enhance species’ ...
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Guidance for contained field trials of vector mosquitoes engineered to contain a gene drive system: Recommendations of a scientific working group

Benedict, MDA, P.; Dobson, S.; Gottlieb, M.; Harrington, L.; Higgs, S.; James, A.; James, S.; Knols, B.; Lavery, J.; O'Neill, S.; Scott, T.; Takken, W.; Toure, Y.; Core Working Grp Guidance, Containe,  Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases,  8:127-166. 2008.
The following recommendations represent the response of a group of involved scientists to the need for guidance to aid researchers, government authorities, and community leaders as they consider the design and implementation of field trials to assess the safety and efficacy of ...
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Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified animals.

EFSA GMO Panel (EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms),  EFSA Journal,  11:3200. 2013.
This document provides guidance for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of living genetically modified (GM) animals, namely fish, insects and mammals and birds, to be placed on the European Union (EU) market in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 or Directive ...
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Identifying and detecting potentially adverse ecological outcomes associated with the release of gene-drive modified organisms

Hayes, KRH, G. R.; Dana, G. V.; Foster, S. D.; Ford, J. H.; Thresher, R.; Ickowicz, A.; Peel, D.; Tizard, M.; De Barro, P.; Strive, T.; Dambacher, J. M.,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S139-S158. 2018.
Synthetic gene drives could provide new solutions to a range of old problems such as controlling vector-borne diseases, agricultural pests and invasive species. In this paper, we outline methods to identify hazards and detect potentially adverse ecological outcomes at the ...
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Identifying knowledge gaps for gene drive research to control invasive animal species: The next CRISPR step

Moro, DB, Margaret; Kennedy, Malcolm; Campbell, Susan; Tizard, Mark,  Global Ecology and Conservation,  13:e00363. 2018.
Invasive animals have been linked to the extinctions of native wildlife, and to significant agricultural financial losses or impacts. Current approaches to control invasive species require ongoing resources and management over large geographic scales, and often result in the ...
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Informed consent and community engagement in open field research: lessons for gene drive science

Singh, JA,  BMC Medical Ethics,  20:54. 2019.
The development of the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system has generated new possibilities for the use of gene drive constructs to reduce or suppress mosquito populations to levels that do not support disease transmission. Despite this prospect, social resistance to genetically ...
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Knowledge engagement in gene drive research for malaria control

Hartley, ST, D.; Ledingham, K.; Coulibaly, M.; Diabate, A.; Dicko, B.; Diop, S.; Kayondo, J.; Namukwaya, A.; Nourou, B.; Toe, L. P.,  PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases,  13:e0007233. 2019.
Scientists and funding bodies have made repeated calls for public engagement in gene drive. In 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) published its report, Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning ...
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Making policies about emerging technologies

Kaebnick, G. E. and M. K. Gusmano,  Hastings Center Report,  48:S2-S11. 2018.
Can we make wise policy decisions about still-emerging technologies?decisions that are grounded in facts yet anticipate unknowns and promote the public's preferences and values? There is a widespread feeling that we should try. There also seems to be widespread agreement that the ...
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Means and ends of effective global risk assessments for genetic pest management

Turner, GB, Camilla; Roda, Lucia,  BMC Proceedings,  12:13. 2018.
The development and use of genetic technologies is regulated by countries according to their national laws and governance structures. Legal frameworks require comprehensive technical evidence to be submitted by an applicant on the biology of the organism, its safety to human, ...
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Means and ends of effective global risk assessments for genetic pest management

Turner, G., C. Beech and L. Roda,  BMC Proceedings,  12:13. 2018.
The development and use of genetic technologies is regulated by countries according to their national laws and governance structures. Legal frameworks require comprehensive technical evidence to be submitted by an applicant on the biology of the organism, its safety to human, ...
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Molecular safeguarding of CRISPR gene drive experiments

Champer, JC, Joan; Lee, Yoo Lim; Liu, Chen; Yang, Emily; Wen, Zhaoxin; Clark, Andrew G.; Messer, Philipp W.,  eLife,  8:e41439. 2019.
CRISPR-based homing gene drives have sparked both enthusiasm and deep concerns due to their potential for genetically altering entire species. This raises the question about our ability to prevent the unintended spread of such drives from the laboratory into a natural population. ...
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National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine’s Gene Drive Workshop: Science, Ethics, and Governance Considerations for Gene Drive Research – October 28, 2015

National Academy of Sciences Engineering Medicine,  National Academy of Sciences,  2015.

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Open until dangerous: gene drive and the case for reforming research to reduce

K. Esvelt, N. Labenz, G. Church,  Centre for Effective Altruism,  2017.