Keywords: gene drive policy

Consultation on a draft National Gene Drive Policy Guide

Commonwealth of Australia (Department of Health and Aged Care),  National Gene Technology Scheme,  2024.
The term gene drive is used to describe organisms which have been genetically modified to increase the rate for a particular trait to spread through a sexually reproducing population, spreading the genes or traits through a species at a faster rate than normal inheritance. ...
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Regulation of GM Organisms for Invasive Species Control

H. J. Mitchell and D. Bartsch,  Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology,  7:1-11. 2020.
Invasive species can cause significant harm to the environment, agriculture, and human health, but there are often very limited tools available to control their populations. Gene drives (GD) have been proposed as a new tool which could be used to control or eliminate such ...
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Irreversible ecosystem engineering with Gene Drive Organisms

Save Our Seeds,  Save Our Seeds,  2020.
Gene drive technology is a particular application of the new genetic engineering tool CRISPR/Cas9. It is designed to genetically modify, replace or eradicate wild populations or entire species. So far it works in mosquitos, mice, flies, yeast and nematodes. But in principle it ...
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The gene drive dilemma: We can alter entire species but should we?

J. Kahn,  New York Times Magazine,  2020.
One early summer evening in 2018, the biologist Anthony James drove from his office at the University of California, Irvine, to the headquarters of the Creative Artists Agency, a sleek glass-and-steel high-rise in Los Angeles. There, roughly 200 writers, directors and producers ...
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Scenario analysis on the use of rodenticides and sex-biasing gene drives for the removal of invasive house mice on islands

M. E. Serr, R. X. Valdez, K. S. Barnhill-Dilling, J. Godwin, T. Kuiken and M. Booker,  Biological Invasions,  2020.
Since the 1960s conservation efforts have focused on recovering island biodiversity by eradicating invasive rodents. These eradication campaigns have led to considerable conservation gains, particularly for nesting seabirds. However, eradications are complex and lengthy endeavors ...
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Beyond Mendelian genetics: Anticipatory biomedical ethics and policy implications for the use of CRISPR together with gene drive in humans.

M. W. Nestor and R. L. Wilson,  Journal of Bioethical Inquiry,  2020:1-12. 2020.
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) genome editing has already reinvented the direction of genetic and stem cell research. For more complex diseases it allows scientists to simultaneously create multiple genetic changes to a single cell. ...
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Technology Factsheet: Gene Drives

J. Lunshof, C. Shachar, R. Edison, A. Jayanti,  Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs,  2020.
Gene drives can be defined as genetic elements that pass from parents to unusually high numbers of their offspring due to biased inheritance (sometimes referred to as the possession of “selfish” genetic elements).1,2 There are different ways of achieving this biased ...
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A typology of community and stakeholder engagement based on documented examples in the field of novel vector control

C. E. Schairer, R. Taitingfong, O. S. Akbari and C. S. Bloss,  PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases,  13:e0007863. 2019.
Background Despite broad consensus on the importance of community and stakeholder engagement (CSE) for guiding the development, regulation, field testing, and deployment of emerging vector control technologies (such as genetically engineered insects), the types of activities ...
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Articulating ‘free, prior and informed consent’ (FPIC) for engineered gene drives

George, D. R., T. Kuiken and J. A. Delborne,  Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences,  286:20191484.. 2019.
Recent statements by United Nations bodies point to free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) as a potential requirement in the development of engineered gene drive applications. As a concept developed in the context of protecting Indigenous rights to self-determination in land ...
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Exterminator genes: The right to say no to ethics dumping

Bassey-Orovwuje, M., J. Thomas and T. Wakeford,  Development,  62:121-127. 2019.
The scientific-industrial complex is promoting a new wave of genetically modified organisms, in particular gene drive organisms, using the same hype with which they tried to persuade society that GMOs would be a magic bullet to solve world hunger. The Gates Foundation claims that ...
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Gene drives in Africa – A Podcast

Wakeford, T.,  etc Group,  2019.
In Episode #1 ETC's Tom Wakeford speaks with Ugandan lawyer and advocate Barbara Ntambirweki about gene drives, a powerful new genetic technology that can change species in the wild and make species go extinct.
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Efforts to enhance safety measures for CRISPR/Cas-based gene drive technology in Japan

T. Tanaka, N. Tanaka, Y. Nagano, H. Kanuka, D. S. Yamamoto, N. Yamamoto, E. Nanba and T. Nishiuch,  Journal of Environment and Safety,  2019.
Gene drive is a powerful system that can spread a desirable genetic trait into an entire species and/or population of a certain region, bypassing Mendelian rules of inheritance. Recently, one of the genome editing technologies, CRISPR/Cas, has been developed, making it easier to ...
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Gene Drive Technologies: Powerful and destructive

SWISSAID,  ,  2019.
Gene drive organisms can put our environment, food and health in danger: this is made clear by the video from SWISSAID, the Alliance for GMO-free Switzerland and the ETC Group.
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Gene Drives: Experience with gene drive systems that may inform an environmental risk assessment

Rüdelsheim, PKJS, G.,  COGEM,  2019.
Gene drives are genetic mechanisms that allow for a trait to be propagated throughout a population; beyond Mendelian inheritance. Active in sexually-reproducing species, they are powerful tools to “drive”; a gene, i.e. increase its frequency, independent of external selection ...
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Gene drives and the international biodiversity regime

F. Rabitz,  Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law,  2019.
Gene drives are genetic modifications designed for rapidly diffusing traits throughout a target population. They are currently being proposed as biological control agents to combat, for instance, invasive alien species and disease vectors. They also raise concerns regarding their ...
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Gene drive organisms: What Africa should know about actors, motives and threats to biodiversity and food systems

Sirinathsinghji, E.,  African Centre for Biodiversity.,  2019.
In this briefing paper, we set out the key issues that our governments should have addressed with African civil society before endorsing positions and setting the benchmark for Africa-wide policy. In this regard, we point out that, while the impetus for the AU position might well ...
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An overview of OECD activities related to modern techniques of biotechnology and genome editing

Kearns, P,  Transgenic Research,  28:41-44. 2019.
Since commercial use of genetically-engineered (genetically- modified) plants started in 1996, many agricultural products have been developed to improve crop traits. The foods and feeds derived from these commodities have drastically increased worldwide. However, answering health ...
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Does the U.S. public support using gene drives in agriculture? And what do they want to know?

Jones, MSD, Jason A.; Elsensohn, Johanna; Mitchell, Paul D.; Brown, Zachary S.,  Science Advances,  5:eaau8462. 2019.
Gene drive development is progressing more rapidly than our understanding of public values toward these technologies. We analyze a statistically representative survey (n = 1018) of U.S. adult attitudes toward agricultural gene drives. When informed about potential risks, ...
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Gene drive gone wild: exploring deliberative possibilities by developing One Health ethics

Capps, B,  Law, Innovation and Technology,  11:231-256. 2019.
Gene editing may be used to engineer organisms that are better or worse adapted to survival. Coupled with gene drives ? molecular genetic strategies that perpetuate specific phenotypes in a target species ? it would now be possible to edit wild animal populations that impact on ...
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Safe CRISPR: Challenges and Possible Solutions

Pineda, ML, A.; Collins, J. P.; Kiani, S.,  Trends in Biotechnology,  37:389-401. 2019.
Applications of CRISPR in human health and in gene drives are at the forefront of biological research as tools. This technology will affect humankind and our environment, so as this technology pushes forward, the design and implementation of safety measures is imperative. Novel ...
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The ethical landscape of gene drive research

Callies, DE,  Bioethics,  33:1091-1097. 2019.
Gene drive technology has immense potential. The ability to bypass the laws of Mendelian inheritance and almost ensure the transmission of specific genetic material to future generations creates boundless possibilities. But alongside these boundless possibilities are major social ...
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CRISPR in sub-Saharan Africa: Applications and education

Ogaugwu, CEA, S. O.; Adekoya, M. A.,  Trends in Biotechnology,  37:234-237. 2019.
Clustered regularly interspaced shortpalindromicrepeats (CRISPR) technology has enabled genetic engineering feats previously considered impracticable, offering great hopes for solutions to problems facing society. We consider it timely to highlight how CRISPR can benefit public ...
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Promises and perils of gene drives: Navigating the communication of complex, post-normal science

Brossard, DB, Pam; Gould, Fred; Wirz, Christopher D.,  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,  116:7692-7697. 2019.
In November of 2017, an interdisciplinary panel discussed the complexities of gene drive applications as part of the third Sackler Colloquium on “The Science of Science Communication.” The panel brought together a social scientist, life scientist, and journalist to discuss ...
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Gene drives as a new quality in GMO releases-a comparative technology characterization

Friess, JLvG, A.; Giese, B.,  Peerj,  7:e6793. 2019.
Compared to previous releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) which were primarily plants, gene drives represent a paradigm shift in the handling of GMOs: Current regulation of the release of GMOs assumes that for specific periods of time a certain amount of GMOs will be ...
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A Question of Consent: Exterminator Mosquitoes in Burkina Faso

ETC group,  ,  2019.
Target Malaria’s planned release of GMO mosquitos is step toward release of gene drive mosquitoes, a high-risk technology aimed at the elimination of entire species. Hundreds of organizations have demanded a moratorium on the use of this technology outside of ...
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Problem formulation for gene drive mosquitoes designed to reduce malaria transmission in Africa: results from four regional consultations 2016–2018

Teem, JLA, Aggrey; Glover, Barbara; Ouedraogo, Jeremy; Makinde, Diran; Roberts, Andrew,  Malaria Journal,  18:347. 2019.
Gene drive mosquitoes have been proposed as a possible means to reduce the transmission of malaria in Africa. Because this technology has no prior use-history at this time, environmental risk assessments for gene drive mosquitoes will benefit from problem formulation—an ...
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The Release of Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes in Burkina Faso: Bioeconomy of Science, Public Engagement and Trust in Medicine

Beisel, UG, J. K.,  African Studies Review,  62:164-173. 2019.
Malaria, which is transmitted by mosquitoes, continues to be responsible for a significant number of disease episodes and childhood deaths on the African continent. A variety of mosquito control strategies are currently inplace, but since case numbers are rising again, and drug ...
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Governing extinction in the era of gene editing

Monast, JJ,  North Carolina Law Review,  97:1329-1358. 2019.
CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing technology (“CRISPR”) offers a potential solution for some of the world’s critical conservation challenges. Scientists are harnessing CRISPR to expand genetic diversity of endangered species, control invasive species, or enhance species’ ...
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Using problem formulation for fit-for-purpose pre-market environmental risk assessments of regulated stressors

Devos, YC, W.; Devlin, R. H.; Ippolito, A.; Leggatt, R. A.; Romeis, J.; Shaw, R.; Svendsen, C.; Topping, C. J.,  EFSA Journal,  17:e170708. 2019.
Pre-market/prospective environmental risk assessments (ERAs) contribute to risk analyses performed to facilitate decisions about the market introduction of regulated stressors. Robust ERAs begin with an explicit problem formulation, which involves among other steps: (1) formally ...
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Two minutes to midnight-what international law can do about genome editing

Lee, TL,  Asian Journal of Wto & International Health Law and Policy,  14:227-265. 2019.
With its ability to transform the ecosystem, gene drives, a powerful genome-editing technology, poses nuanced regulatory challenges. In particular, as gene drives can override the normal rule of inheritance, where the impacts of gene-drive modified organisms on the environment ...
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Africa kicks against proposed gene drive moratorium at UN Biodiversity Conference

Gakpo, JO,  Cornell Alliance for Science,  2018.
Africa has kicked against a proposed moratorium on the environmental release of organisms containing gene drives now under debate at the United Nation’s biodiversity conference in Egypt.
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Burkina Faso’s mosquito controversy: Consent, awareness and risk assessment in Target Malaria’s gene drive project

Fuhr, L,  Klima der Gerechtigkeit,  2018.
The 14th Conference of the Parties (COP 14) to the Convention on Biological Diversity is taking place in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, from the 17th to the 29th of November, 2018. Amongst other things, delegates are discussing a moratorium on the release of gene drives, a powerful ...
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Genetic extinction technology challenged at UN Convention on biodiversity

reporter, A,  Ekklesia,  2018.
From November 17-29 2018, international conservation and environmental leaders are meeting to call on governments to protect biodiversity and Indigenous Peoples’ and local communities’ rights from controversial new biotechnologies. Friends of the Earth says gene drives have ...
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Viewpoint: UN should reject a proposed ban on gene drives

Bailey, R,  Genetic Literacy Project,  2018.
A draft resolution would revise the U.N. Convention on Biological Diversity to call on governments to “refrain from” releasing organisms containing engineered gene drives, according to the MIT Technology Review. A gene drive is a technology that can rapidly propagate a ...
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Global body to consider moratorium on release of organisms with engineered ‘gene drives’

Channel, D,  Development Channel,  2018.
Governments from across the globe will consider imposing a temporary ban on the release of organisms carrying altered genes that can propagate through a population, as the consequence of deployment of the technology, which has the potential to eradicate disease, control pests and ...
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Zambian citizens call on leaders to raise concerns on GMOs at upcoming meeting in Egypt

Biodiversity, ZAfAa,  Lusakatimes,  2018.
Zambia supports the global call for a moratorium on Gene Drive releases, including applied research such as open field trials
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From geoengineering to gene drives: move over, moratoria

Woods, E,  In Verba,  2018.
Around this time six years ago I was in Hyderabad in India getting to grips with moratoria. Back then conversations revolved around geoengineering – techniques to reduce global warming by intervening in the Earth’s climate system – and whether a ban on geoengineering ...
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From terminator to exterminator

etc group,  etc group,  2018.
20 years after suicide seeds, civil society mobilizes in Egypt this week to stop the sequel – Gene Drive Organisms
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Proposed U.N. test ban on gene drives is idiotic

Bailey, R,  Reason,  2018.
A draft resolution would revise the U.N. Convention on Biological Diversity to call on governments to "refrain from" releasing organisms containing engineered gene drives, according to the MIT Technology Review. A gene drive is a technology that can rapidly propagate a particular ...
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Research on gene drive technology can benefit conservation and public health.

Outreach Network for Gene Drive Research,  Outreach Network for Gene Drive Research,  2018.
As a global community, we are facing life-threatening challenges that undermine our future, from catastrophic loss of biodiversity to acute public health threats.
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Call for a global moratorium on gene drive releases

Network, TW,  Biosafety Information Centre,  2018.
Gene drives are a genetic engineering tool that aim to force artificial genetic changes through entire populations of animals, insects and plants. Starting on the 17th of November, Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity will meet to discuss measures to ...
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Scientists divided over new research method to combat malaria

Sample, I,  The Guardian,  2018.
Work on engineered gene used to modify DNA of mosquitoes ‘could be stifled’ by perceived risk to environment
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United Nations considers a test ban on evolution-warping gene drives

Regalado, A,  MIT Technology Review,  2018.
Debate over a new idea for stopping malaria is pitting some environmental groups against Bill Gates.
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Do not betray Africa on synbio and gene drives

etc group,  etc group,  2018.
As representatives of a broad range of African civil society organisations (CSOs), we do not feel represented by the delegations of Nigeria and South Africa, speaking on behalf of African Group, in their attempt to speak on behalf of the people of Africa on the issue of synthetic ...
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Gene drives promise great gains and great dangers

The Economist,  The Economist,  2018.
Extinctions are seldom cause for celebration. Humans are wiping out species at a frightening rate, whether hunting them into history or, far more threateningly, damaging the habitats on which they depend. But occasionally, the destruction is warranted. Smallpox was officially ...
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Gene drive organisms: Warning of risks due to uncontrolled releases

Then, C,  Testbiotech,  2018.
The German Ministry for the Environment has in response to an open letter sent by several civil society organisations issued a statement very critical of genetically engineered organisms carrying a so-called gene drive. The ministry announced that it will take action on an ...
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Editing nature: Local roots of global governance

Kofler, N.C., James P.; Kuzma, Jennifer; Marris, Emma; Esvelt, Kevin; Nelson, Michael Paul; Newhouse, Andrew; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Vigliotti, Vivian S.; Semenov, Misha; Jacobsen, Rowan; Dahlman, James E.; Prince, Shannon; Caccone, Adalgisa; Brown, Timothy,  Science,  2018.

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Gene Drives

SciLine,  SciLine,  2018.
For many years now, scientists have been able to alter genes inside microbial, plant, and animal cells to change organisms’ traits, creating, for example, plants that produce their own protective insecticides and fish that grow to maturity almost twice as fast as normal. But ...
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Development of community of practice to support quantitative risk assessment for synthetic biology products: contaminant bioremediation and invasive carp control as cases

Trump, BF, C.; Rycroft, T.; Wood, M. D.; Bandolin, N.; Cains, M.; Cary, T.; Crocker, F.; Friedenberg, N. A.; Gurian, P.; Hamilton, K.; Hoover, J.J.; Meyer, C.; Pokrzywinski, K.; Ritterson, R.; Schulte, P.; Warner, C. ; Perkins, E.; Linkov, I.,  Environmental Systems and Decisions,  38:517-527. 2018.
Synthetic biology has the potential for a broad array of applications. However, realization of this potential is challenged by the paucity of relevant data for conventional risk assessment protocols, a limitation due to to the relative nascence of the field, as well as the poorly ...
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Identifying knowledge gaps for gene drive research to control invasive animal species: The next CRISPR step

Moro, DB, Margaret; Kennedy, Malcolm; Campbell, Susan; Tizard, Mark,  Global Ecology and Conservation,  13:e00363. 2018.
Invasive animals have been linked to the extinctions of native wildlife, and to significant agricultural financial losses or impacts. Current approaches to control invasive species require ongoing resources and management over large geographic scales, and often result in the ...
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Anticipating complexity in the deployment of gene drive insects in agriculture

Baltzegar, JCB, Jessica; Elsensohn, Johanna E.; Gutzmann, Nicole; Jones, Michael S.; King, Sheron; Sudweeks, Jayce,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S81-S97. 2018.
Insects cause substantial losses to agricultural crops each yearand require intensive management approaches. Genetic pestmanagement has emerged as a viable, non-chemical alternative formanaging insect pests. The development of engineered genedrives for agricultural use is ...
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Genetically engineered mosquitoes, Zika and other arboviruses, community engagement, costs, and patents: Ethical issues

Meghani, ZB, Christophe,  PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases,  12:e0006501. 2018.
We discuss here key ethical questions raised by the use of GE insects, with the aim of fostering discussion between the public, researchers, policy makers, healthcare organizations, and regulatory agencies at the local, national, and international levels. We affect that goal by ...
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Editing nature: Local roots of global governance

Kofler, NC, James P.; Kuzma, Jennifer; Marris, Emma; Esvelt, Kevin; Nelson, Michael Paul; Newhouse, Andrew; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Vigliotti, Vivian S.; Semenov, Misha; Jacobsen, Rowan; Dahlman, James E.; Prince, Shannon; Caccone, Adalgisa; Brown, Timothy; Schmitz, Oswald J.,  Science,  362:527. 2018.
The end of malaria. Restored island habitats. Resiliency for species threatened by climate change. Many envisioned environmental applications of newly developed gene-editing techniques such as CRISPR might provide profound benefits for ecosystems and society. But depending on the ...
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Community engagement and field trials of genetically modified insects and animals

Neuhaus, C. P.,  Hastings Center Report,  48:25-36. 2018.
New techniques for the genetic modification of organisms are creating new strategies for addressing persistent public health challenges. For example, the company Oxitec has conducted field trials internationally?and has attempted to conduct field trials in the United States?of a ...
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Making policies about emerging technologies

Kaebnick, G. E. and M. K. Gusmano,  Hastings Center Report,  48:S2-S11. 2018.
Can we make wise policy decisions about still-emerging technologies?decisions that are grounded in facts yet anticipate unknowns and promote the public's preferences and values? There is a widespread feeling that we should try. There also seems to be widespread agreement that the ...
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Gene Drives Can Wipe Out Entire Species… Or Save Them

Gizmodo,  ,  2017.
Bill Gates and other investors have poured millions into gene drives. So what is the technology and why are scientists worried about it?
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Open until dangerous: gene drive and the case for reforming research to reduce

K. Esvelt, N. Labenz, G. Church,  Centre for Effective Altruism,  2017.
The wisdom with which we develop and deploy new technologies will define the future of our civilization. Why do we conduct reseearch in small teams of specialists who cannot reliably anticipate consequences on their own? Might it be better to share our best ideas and plans with ...
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Principles for gene drive research

Emerson, CJ, Stephanie; Littler, Katherine; Randazzo, Filippo,  Science,  358:1135. 2017.
The recent outbreak of Zika virus in the Americas renewed attention on the importance of vector-control strategies to fight the many vector-borne diseases that continue to inflict suffering around the world. In 2015, there were ?212 million infections and a death every minute ...
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Unintended consequences of 21st century technology for agricultural pest management

Young, SL,  EMBO reports,  18:1478-1478. 2017.
Comment on Agricultural pest control with CRISPR-based gene drive: time for public debate by Courtier-Orgogozo et al.
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CRISPR-based gene drive in agriculture will face technical and governance challenges

Gutzmann, NE, Johanna E.; Barnes, Jessica Cavin; Baltzegar, Jennifer; Jones, Michael S.; Sudweeks, Jayce,  EMBO reports,  18:1479-1480. 2017.
Comment on "Agricultural pest control with CRISPR-based gene drive: time for public debate" by Courtier-Orgogozo et al.
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Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values

U. S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,  The National Academies Press,  2016.
Scientists have studied gene drives for more than 50 years. The development of a powerful genome editing tool in 2012, CRISPR/Cas9,1 led to recent breakthroughs in gene drive research that built on that half century’s worth of knowledge, and stimulated new discussion of the ...
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Gene Drive Technology: Where is the Future?

National Academy of Sciences Engineering Medicine,  BioScience Talks,  2016.
Gene drives have the potential to revolutionize approaches to major public health, conservation, and agricultural problems. For instance, gene drives might one day prevent mosquitoes from spreading a variety of deadly diseases, including Zika virus, malaria, and others. A form of ...
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Openly Engineering Our Ecosystems

TEDxCambridge,  ,  2016.
Which technologies should we develop and how? Kevin Esvelt, leader of the Sculpting Evolution group and a professor at the MIT Media Lab, describes how CRISPR 'gene drives' can single-handedly alter entire wild populations and the critical importance of requiring powerful ...
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National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine’s Gene Drive Workshop: Science, Ethics, and Governance Considerations for Gene Drive Research – October 28, 2015

National Academy of Sciences Engineering Medicine,  National Academy of Sciences,  2015.

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Concerning RNA-guided gene drives for the alteration of wild populations

Esvelt, KMS, Andrea L.; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Church, George M.,  eLife,  3:e03401. 2014.
Gene drives may be capable of addressing ecological problems by altering entire; populations of wild organisms, but their use has remained largely theoretical due to technical; constraints. Here we consider the potential for RNA-guided gene drives based on the CRISPR; nuclease ...
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Regulating gene drives

Oye, KAE, K.; Appleton, E.; Catteruccia, F.; Church, G.; Kuiken, T.; Lightfoot, S. B. Y.; McNamara, J.; Smidler, A.; Collins, J. P.,  Science,  345:626-628. 2014.
Regulatory gaps must be filled before gene drives could be used in the wild
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Deployment of innovative genetic vector control strategies: progress on regulatory and biosafety aspects, capacity building and development of best-practice guidance

Beech, CV, S.S.; Quinlan, M.M.; Capurro, Margareth L.; Alphey, L.; Bayard, V.; Bouare, M.; McLeod, M.C.; Kittayapong, P.; Lavery, J.; Lim, L.H.; Marrelli, M.T.; Nagaraju, J.; Ombongi, K.; Othman, R.Y.; Pillai, V.; Ramsey, J.; Reuben, R.; Rose, R.I.; Tyagi, B.K.; Mumford, J.,  AsPac J. Mol. Biol. Biotechnol.,  17:75-85. 2009.
In the ongoing fight against vectors of human diseases, disease endemic countries (DECs) may soon benefit from innovative control strategies involving modified insect vectors. For instance, three promising methods (viz. RIDL® [Release of Insects with a Dominant Lethal], ...
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General principles for risk assessment of living modified organisms: Lessons from chemical risk assessment

Hill, RAS, C.,  Environ. Biosafety Res,  2:81-88. 2003.
Modern biotechnology has led to the development and use of Living Modified Organisms (LMOs) for agriculture and other purposes. Regulators at the national level are increasingly depending on risk assessment as a tool for assessing potential adverse effects of LMOs on the ...
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