Keywords: gene drive safety

Gene drives for schistosomiasis transmission control

T. Maier, N. J. Wheeler, E. K. O. Namigai, J. Tycko, R. E. Grewelle, Y. Woldeamanuel, K. Klohe, J. Perez-Saez, S. H. Sokolow, G. A. De Leo, T. P. Yoshino, M. Zamanian and J. Reinhard-Rupp,  PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases,  13:e0007833. 2019.
Schistosomiasis is one of the most important and widespread neglected tropical diseases (NTD), with over 200 million people infected in more than 70 countries; the disease has nearly 800 million people at risk in endemic areas. Although mass drug administration is a ...
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Articulating ‘free, prior and informed consent’ (FPIC) for engineered gene drives

George, D. R., T. Kuiken and J. A. Delborne,  Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences,  286:20191484.. 2019.
Recent statements by United Nations bodies point to free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) as a potential requirement in the development of engineered gene drive applications. As a concept developed in the context of protecting Indigenous rights to self-determination in land ...
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Exterminator genes: The right to say no to ethics dumping

Bassey-Orovwuje, M., J. Thomas and T. Wakeford,  Development,  62:121-127. 2019.
The scientific-industrial complex is promoting a new wave of genetically modified organisms, in particular gene drive organisms, using the same hype with which they tried to persuade society that GMOs would be a magic bullet to solve world hunger. The Gates Foundation claims that ...
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A cross-sectional survey of biosafety professionals regarding genetically modified insects

O’Brochta, D. A., W. K. Tonui, B. Dass and S. James,  Applied Biosafety,  2019:1-9. 2019.
Background:Genetic technologies such as gene editing and gene drive create challenges for existing frameworks used to assess risk and make regulatory determinations by governments and institutions. Insect genetic technologies including transgenics, gene editing, and gene drive ...
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The potential for a released autosomal X-shredder becoming a driving-Y chromosome and invasively suppressing wild populations of malaria mosquitoes

Alcalay, Y., S. Fuchs, R. Galizi, F. Bernardini, R. E. Haghighat-Khah, D. B. Rusch, J. R. Adrion, M. W. Hahn, P. Tortosa and P. A. Papathanos,  bioRxiv,  2019:860551. 2019.
Synthetic sex-ratio distorters based on X-chromosome shredding are predicted to be more efficient than sterile males for population suppression of malaria mosquitoes using genetic control. X chromosome shredding operates through the targeted elimination of X-chromosome-bearing ...
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Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporodia: Plasmodiidae) and O’nyong-nyong virus development in a transgenic Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) strain

Mumford, J. D., C. A. Long, S. C. Weaver, K. Miura, E. Wang, R. Rotenberry, E. M. Dotson and M. Q. Benedict,  " Journal of Medical Entomology,  56:936-941. 2019.
ransgenic Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes have been developed that confer sexual sterility on males that carry a transgene encoding a protein which cuts ribosomal DNA. A relevant risk concern with transgenic mosquitoes is that their capacity to transmit ...
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Gene Drives and new genetic manipulation in agriculture

Terra de Direitos,  Terra de Direitos,  2019.
Gene drives are forms of genetic editing or manipulation of live organisms. They are the most dangerous forms of transgenics which edit genetic characteristics without necessarily including a new gene, but rather manipulating existing genes of live organisms, i.e. live organism ...
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A Controversial Swarm Of Genetically Modified Mosquitoes In A Lab In Italy

NPR,  ,  2019.
An international team of scientists is conducting a controversial experiment in Italy. The experiment is designed to test genetically modified mosquitoes that researchers hope could provide a powerful new weapon to fight malaria, which remains one of the world's greatest ...
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Threshold-Dependent Gene Drives in Wild Populations – A Podcast

G. A. Backus and J. A. Delborne,  BioScience Talks,  2019.
By altering the heritability of certain traits, gene drive technologies have the potential to spread desired genes through wild populations. In practice, this could lead to mosquito populations that, for example, bear traits making them resistant to the spread of malaria. Despite ...
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Efforts to enhance safety measures for CRISPR/Cas-based gene drive technology in Japan

T. Tanaka, N. Tanaka, Y. Nagano, H. Kanuka, D. S. Yamamoto, N. Yamamoto, E. Nanba and T. Nishiuch,  Journal of Environment and Safety,  2019.
Gene drive is a powerful system that can spread a desirable genetic trait into an entire species and/or population of a certain region, bypassing Mendelian rules of inheritance. Recently, one of the genome editing technologies, CRISPR/Cas, has been developed, making it easier to ...
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Gene Drive Technologies: Powerful and destructive

SWISSAID,  ,  2019.
Gene drive organisms can put our environment, food and health in danger: this is made clear by the video from SWISSAID, the Alliance for GMO-free Switzerland and the ETC Group.
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Genetically engineered mosquitoes out of control

GM Watch,  GM Watch,  2019.
According to a new scientific publication, genetically engineered mosquitoes produced by the biotech company Oxitec (Intrexon) have escaped human control after trials in Brazil. They are now spreading in the environment. The yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) are genetically ...
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Gene drive organisms: What Africa should know about actors, motives and threats to biodiversity and food systems

Sirinathsinghji, E.,  African Centre for Biodiversity.,  2019.
In this briefing paper, we set out the key issues that our governments should have addressed with African civil society before endorsing positions and setting the benchmark for Africa-wide policy. In this regard, we point out that, while the impetus for the AU position might well ...
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An overview of OECD activities related to modern techniques of biotechnology and genome editing

Kearns, P,  Transgenic Research,  28:41-44. 2019.
Since commercial use of genetically-engineered (genetically- modified) plants started in 1996, many agricultural products have been developed to improve crop traits. The foods and feeds derived from these commodities have drastically increased worldwide. However, answering health ...
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Molecular safeguarding of CRISPR gene drive experiments

Champer, JC, Joan; Lee, Yoo Lim; Liu, Chen; Yang, Emily; Wen, Zhaoxin; Clark, Andrew G.; Messer, Philipp W.,  eLife,  8:e41439. 2019.
CRISPR-based homing gene drives have sparked both enthusiasm and deep concerns due to their potential for genetically altering entire species. This raises the question about our ability to prevent the unintended spread of such drives from the laboratory into a natural population. ...
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Population management using gene drive: molecular design, models ofspread dynamics and assessment of ecological risks

Rode, NOE, A.; Bourguet, D.; Courtier-Orgogozo, V.; Debarre, F.,  Conservation Genetics,  20:671-690. 2019.
CRISPR gene drive has recently been proposed as a promising technology for population management, including in conservation genetics. The technique would consist in releasing genetically engineered individuals that are designed to rapidly propagate a desired mutation or transgene ...
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The revised arthropod containment guidelines

Higgs, S,  Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases,  19:149-151. 2019.
In 2003, just a few months after I became editor of Vector-; Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, we published the Arthropod; Containment Guidelines, likely our first of what would become; known as an Open Access publication. The concept to; produce the guidelines resulted from a ...
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Gene drives as a response to infection and resistance

Hayirli, TCM, P.F.,  Infection and Drug Resistance,  12:229-234. 2019.
Vector-borne infectious diseases continue to be a major threat to public health. Although some prevention and treatment modalities exist for these diseases, resistance to such modalities, exacerbated by global climate change, remains a fundamental challenge. Developments in ...
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Safe CRISPR: Challenges and Possible Solutions

Pineda, ML, A.; Collins, J. P.; Kiani, S.,  Trends in Biotechnology,  37:389-401. 2019.
Applications of CRISPR in human health and in gene drives are at the forefront of biological research as tools. This technology will affect humankind and our environment, so as this technology pushes forward, the design and implementation of safety measures is imperative. Novel ...
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The EU regulatory framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

Bruetschy, C,  Transgenic Research,  28:169-174. 2019.
The European Union (EU) legislation on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) aims to ensure a high level of protection for human, animal and environmental health and a well-functioning EU internal market. The framework regulates the release of GMOs into the environment and their ...
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Precision control of CRISPR-Cas9 using small molecules and light

Gangopadhyay, SAC, K. J.; Manna, D.; Lim, D.; Maji, B.; Zhou, Q. X.; Choudhary, A.,  Biochemistry,  58:234-244. 2019.
The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas system is an adaptive immune system of bacteria that has furnished several RNA-guided DNA endonucleases (e.g., Cas9) that are revolutionizing the field of genome engineering. Cas9 is being used to effect ...
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Promises and perils of gene drives: Navigating the communication of complex, post-normal science

Brossard, DB, Pam; Gould, Fred; Wirz, Christopher D.,  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,  116:7692-7697. 2019.
In November of 2017, an interdisciplinary panel discussed the complexities of gene drive applications as part of the third Sackler Colloquium on “The Science of Science Communication.” The panel brought together a social scientist, life scientist, and journalist to discuss ...
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CRISPR ethics: Moral considerations for applications of a powerful tool

Brokowski, C. and Adli, M.,  Journal of Molecular Biology,  431:88-101. 2019.
With the emergence of CRISPR technology, targeted editing of a wide variety of genomes is no longer an abstract hypothetical, but occurs regularly. As application areas of CRISPR are exceeding beyond research and biomedical therapies, new and existing ethical concerns abound ...
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CRISPR-Clear: A fieldable detection procedure for potential CRISPR-Cas9 gene drive based bioweapons.

Nieuwenweg, ACvG, Martijn M.; Horsting, Angelina; Hegge, Jorrit W; Velders, Aldrik; Saggiomo, Vittorio,  ChemRxiv,  2019:1-11. 2019.
Rapid progression in genetic modification research has made gene editing increasingly cheaper and easier to use. CRISPR-Cas9 for example, allows for the specific alteration of the genome of an organism with relative simplicity and low costs. This raised a worrying question; can ...
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Gene drives as a new quality in GMO releases-a comparative technology characterization

Friess, JLvG, A.; Giese, B.,  Peerj,  7:e6793. 2019.
Compared to previous releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) which were primarily plants, gene drives represent a paradigm shift in the handling of GMOs: Current regulation of the release of GMOs assumes that for specific periods of time a certain amount of GMOs will be ...
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A Question of Consent: Exterminator Mosquitoes in Burkina Faso

ETC group,  ,  2019.
Target Malaria’s planned release of GMO mosquitos is step toward release of gene drive mosquitoes, a high-risk technology aimed at the elimination of entire species. Hundreds of organizations have demanded a moratorium on the use of this technology outside of ...
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Problem formulation for gene drive mosquitoes designed to reduce malaria transmission in Africa: results from four regional consultations 2016–2018

Teem, JLA, Aggrey; Glover, Barbara; Ouedraogo, Jeremy; Makinde, Diran; Roberts, Andrew,  Malaria Journal,  18:347. 2019.
Gene drive mosquitoes have been proposed as a possible means to reduce the transmission of malaria in Africa. Because this technology has no prior use-history at this time, environmental risk assessments for gene drive mosquitoes will benefit from problem formulation—an ...
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The Release of Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes in Burkina Faso: Bioeconomy of Science, Public Engagement and Trust in Medicine

Beisel, UG, J. K.,  African Studies Review,  62:164-173. 2019.
Malaria, which is transmitted by mosquitoes, continues to be responsible for a significant number of disease episodes and childhood deaths on the African continent. A variety of mosquito control strategies are currently inplace, but since case numbers are rising again, and drug ...
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Using problem formulation for fit-for-purpose pre-market environmental risk assessments of regulated stressors

Devos, YC, W.; Devlin, R. H.; Ippolito, A.; Leggatt, R. A.; Romeis, J.; Shaw, R.; Svendsen, C.; Topping, C. J.,  EFSA Journal,  17:e170708. 2019.
Pre-market/prospective environmental risk assessments (ERAs) contribute to risk analyses performed to facilitate decisions about the market introduction of regulated stressors. Robust ERAs begin with an explicit problem formulation, which involves among other steps: (1) formally ...
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Gene drives in plants: opportunities and challenges for weed control and engineered resilience

Barrett, LGL, Mathieu; Kumaran, Nagalingam; Glassop, Donna; Raghu, S.; Gardiner, Donald M.,  Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences,  286:9. 2019.
Plant species, populations and communities are under threat from climate change, invasive pathogens, weeds and habitat fragmentation. Despite considerable research effort invested in genome engineering for crop improvement, the development of genetic tools for the management of ...
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Evaluating the Probability of CRISPR-based Gene Drive Contaminating Another Species

Courtier-Orgogozo, VD, Antoine; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Boëte, Christophe,  bioRxiv,  776609:27. 2019.
The probability D that a given CRISPR-based gene drive element contaminates another, non-target species can be estimated by the following Drive Risk Assessment Quantitative Estimate (DRAQUE) Equation: D = (hyb+transf).express.cut.flank.immune.nonextinct withhyb = probability of ...
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An introduction to the proceedings of the environmental release of engineered pests: Building an international governance framewor

Brown, Z. S., L. Carter and F. Gould,  BMC Proceedings,  12:10. 2018.
In October 2016, a two-day meeting of 65 academic, government and industry professionals was held at North Carolina State University for early-stage discussions about the international governance of gene drives: potentially powerful new technologies that can be used for the ...
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Means and ends of effective global risk assessments for genetic pest management

Turner, G., C. Beech and L. Roda,  BMC Proceedings,  12:13. 2018.
The development and use of genetic technologies is regulated by countries according to their national laws and governance structures. Legal frameworks require comprehensive technical evidence to be submitted by an applicant on the biology of the organism, its safety to human, ...
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Towards inclusive social appraisal: risk, participation and democracy in governance of synthetic biology

Stirling, A., K. R. Hayes and J. Delborne,  BMC Proceedings,  12:15. 2018.
Frameworks that govern the development and application of novel products, such as the products of synthetic biology, should involve all those who are interested or potentially affected by the products. The governance arrangements for novel products should also provide a ...
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Public engagement pathways for emerging GM insect technologies

Burgess, M. M., J. D. Mumford and J. V. Lavery,  BMC Proceedings,  12:12. 2018.
Policy and management related to the release of organisms generated by emerging biotechnologies for pest management should be informed through public engagement. Regulatory decisions can be conceptually distinguished into the development of frameworks, the assessment of the ...
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GM insect pests under the Brazilian regulatory framework: development and perspectives

Andrade, P. P., M. A. da Silva Ferreira, M. S. Muniz and A. de Casto Lira-Neto,  BMC Proceedings,  12:15. 2018.
The emergence of new technologies for genetic modification has broadened the range of possible new products. The regulations of many countries that could benefit from these new products may not be prepared to assess risks and enable science-based decision-making. This is ...
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Regulation of emerging gene technologies in India

Ahuja, V.,  BMC Proceedings,  12:14. 2018.
In India, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the products thereof are regulated under the “Rules for the manufacture, use, import, export & storage of hazardous microorganisms, genetically engineered organisms or cells, 1989” (referred to as Rules, 1989) notified under ...
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Gene drives breakthrough needs urgent restraint

Steinbrecher, R,  GMWatch,  2018.
Gene drive researchers associated with Target Malaria and funded by US DARPA, the GATES Foundation and the UK BBSRC have just managed to crash a population of caged mosquitoes after 7-11 generations.(1); ; This is a first, and it has brought this technology beyond the proof of ...
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Existing rules cover gene-drive usage

Strassheim, S.S., W.,  Nature,  2018.

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Considerations for the governance of gene drive organisms

Rudenko, L.P., Megan J.; Oye, Kenneth,  Pathogens and Global Health,  2018.
Governance is a broader and more flexible concept than statute-driven regulations as it incorporates components outside the latter?s remit. Considerations of governance are critical in the development of emerging biotechnologies such as gene drive organisms. These have been ...
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Gene Drive Technology

Rick Weiss,  SciLine,  2018.
Gene drives represent a new take on genetic engineering offering previously impossible means of fighting disease-spreading insects and invasive species but also raising the specter of ecological disruption. This briefing reviews the current status of gene-drive technology, ...
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Transgenic Mosquitoes – Fact or Fiction?

Wilke, A. B. B., J. C. Beier and G. Benelli,  Trends in Parasitology,  34:456-465. 2018.
echnologies for controlling mosquito vectors based on genetic manipulation and the release of genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) are gaining ground. However, concrete epidemiological evidence of their effectiveness, sustainability, and impact on the environment and nontarget ...
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Population modification of Anopheline species to control malaria transmission

R. Carballar-Lejarazú and A. A. James,  Pathogens and Global Health,  111:424-435. 2018.
Vector control strategies based on population modification of Anopheline mosquitoes may have a significant role in the malaria eradication agenda. They could consolidate elimination gains by providing barriers to the reintroduction of parasites and competent vectors, and allow ...
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A Framework for the risk assessment and management of gene drive technology in contained use

van der Vlugt, CJBB, David D.; Lehmann, Kathleen; Leunda, Amaya; Willemarck, Nicolas,  Applied Biosafety,  23:25-31. 2018.
The utilisation of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology has sparked a renewed interest in gene drive mechanisms. These mechanisms of biased inheritance may yield promising applications in the fields of vector control and nature conservation. However, the same properties that will enable ...
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Using gene drive technologies to control vector-borne infectious diseases

James, ST, K. H.,  Sustainability,  10:4789. 2018.
After years of success in reducing the global malaria burden, the World Health Organization (WHO) recently reported that progress has stalled. Over 90% of malaria deaths world-wide occurred in the WHO African Region. New tools are needed to regain momentum and further decrease ...
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Current CRISPR gene drive systems are likely to be highly invasive in wild populations

Noble, CA, Ben; Church, George M.; Esvelt, Kevin M.; Nowak, Martin A.,  eLife,  7:e33423. 2018.
Recent reports have suggested that self-propagating CRISPR-based gene drive systems are unlikely to efficiently invade wild populations due to drive-resistant alleles that prevent cutting. Here we develop mathematical models based on existing empirical data to explicitly test ...
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Means and ends of effective global risk assessments for genetic pest management

Turner, GB, Camilla; Roda, Lucia,  BMC Proceedings,  12:13. 2018.
The development and use of genetic technologies is regulated by countries according to their national laws and governance structures. Legal frameworks require comprehensive technical evidence to be submitted by an applicant on the biology of the organism, its safety to human, ...
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Pathway to deployment of gene drive mosquitoes as a potential biocontrol tool for elimination of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa: Recommendations of a scientific working group

James, SC, Frank H.; Welkhoff, Philip A.; Emerson, Claudia; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Gottlieb, Michael; Greenwood, Brian; Lindsay, Steve W.; Mbogo, Charles M.; Okumu, Fredros O.; Quemada, Hector; Savadogo, Moussa; Singh, Jerome A.; Tountas, Karen H.; Touré,  American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene,  98:1-49. 2018.
Gene drive technology offers the promise for a high-impact, cost-effective, and durable method to control malaria transmission that would make a significant contribution to elimination. Gene drive systems, such as those based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic ...
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Development of community of practice to support quantitative risk assessment for synthetic biology products: contaminant bioremediation and invasive carp control as cases

Trump, BF, C.; Rycroft, T.; Wood, M. D.; Bandolin, N.; Cains, M.; Cary, T.; Crocker, F.; Friedenberg, N. A.; Gurian, P.; Hamilton, K.; Hoover, J.J.; Meyer, C.; Pokrzywinski, K.; Ritterson, R.; Schulte, P.; Warner, C. ; Perkins, E.; Linkov, I.,  Environmental Systems and Decisions,  38:517-527. 2018.
Synthetic biology has the potential for a broad array of applications. However, realization of this potential is challenged by the paucity of relevant data for conventional risk assessment protocols, a limitation due to to the relative nascence of the field, as well as the poorly ...
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Identifying and detecting potentially adverse ecological outcomes associated with the release of gene-drive modified organisms

Hayes, KRH, G. R.; Dana, G. V.; Foster, S. D.; Ford, J. H.; Thresher, R.; Ickowicz, A.; Peel, D.; Tizard, M.; De Barro, P.; Strive, T.; Dambacher, J. M.,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S139-S158. 2018.
Synthetic gene drives could provide new solutions to a range of old problems such as controlling vector-borne diseases, agricultural pests and invasive species. In this paper, we outline methods to identify hazards and detect potentially adverse ecological outcomes at the ...
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Public engagement and communication: who is in charge?

Boëte, C,  EMBO reports,  19:1. 2018.
The discovery of CRISPR has led to the development of gene drive systems that could be used to spread desired traits in a target species or to exterminate a population within a few generations. It is no surprise then that such a controversial and disruptive technology has raised ...
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Switchable genome editing via genetic code expansion

Suzuki, TA, Maki; Patel, Sanjay G.; Luk, Louis Y. P.; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Perry, Anthony C. F.,  Scientific Reports,  8:10051. 2018.
Multiple applications of genome editing by CRISPR-Cas9 necessitate stringent regulation and Cas9 variants have accordingly been generated whose activity responds to small ligands, temperature or light. However, these approaches are often impracticable, for example in clinical ...
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Anticipating complexity in the deployment of gene drive insects in agriculture

Baltzegar, JCB, Jessica; Elsensohn, Johanna E.; Gutzmann, Nicole; Jones, Michael S.; King, Sheron; Sudweeks, Jayce,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S81-S97. 2018.
Insects cause substantial losses to agricultural crops each yearand require intensive management approaches. Genetic pestmanagement has emerged as a viable, non-chemical alternative formanaging insect pests. The development of engineered genedrives for agricultural use is ...
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Existing rules cover gene-drive usage

Strassheim, SS, W.,  Nature,  554:169. 2018.
Gene-drive technology is not; unregulated, as you imply; (Nature 552, 6; 2017). Because; it involves genetically modified; (GM) organisms, it is covered in; countries that have regulations; on gene modification and; internationally by the Cartagena; Protocol on Biosafety.
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Harnessing gene drive

Min, JS, Andrea L.; Najjar, Devora; Esvelt, Kevin M.,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S40-S65. 2018.
When scientists alter the genome of an organism, we typically reduce its ability to reproduce in the wild. This limitation has prevented researchers from rendering wild insects unable to spread disease, programing pests to ignore our crops, using genetics to precisely remove ...
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Strengthening regulatory capacity for gene drives in Africa: leveraging NEPAD’s experience in establishing regulatory systems for medicines and GM crops in Africa

Glover, BA, Olalekan; Savadogo, Moussa; Timpo, Samuel; Lemgo, Godwin; Sinebo, Woldeyesus; Akile, Sunday; Obukosia, Silas; Ouedraogo, Jeremy; Ndomondo-Sigonda, Margareth; Koch, Muffy; Makinde, Diran; Ambali, Aggrey,  BMC Proceedings,  12:1-10. 2018.
The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) Agency recognizes that Africa is in a period of transition and that this demands exploring and harnessing safe advances made in science-based innovations including modern biotechnology. To advance the science of biotechnology ...
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Synthetic gene drive: between continuity and novelty: Crucial differences between gene drive and genetically modified organisms require an adapted risk assessment for their use

Simon, SO, Mathias; Engelhard, Margret,  EMBO Reports,  19:e45760. 2018.
Gene drive organisms differ from “classical” genetically modified organisms in several crucial aspects. It would require new approaches for risk assessment to gauge their potential impact on the environment. While some argue that current risk assessment frameworks can ...
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Considerations for the governance of gene drive organisms

Rudenko, LP, Megan J.; Oye, Kenneth,  Pathogens and Global Health,  112:162-181. 2018.
Governance is a broader and more flexible concept than statute-driven regulations as it incorporates components outside the latter?s remit. Considerations of governance are critical in the development of emerging biotechnologies such as gene drive organisms. These have been ...
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Gene drives in our future: challenges of and opportunities for using a self-sustaining technology in pest and vector management

Collins, JP,  BMC Proceedings,  12:9. 2018.
Gene drives are systems of biased inheritance that enhance the likelihood a sequence of DNA passes between generations through sexual reproduction and potentially throughout a local population and ultimately all connected populations of a species. Gaps in our knowledge of gene ...
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Rationally-engineered reproductive barriers using CRISPR & CRISPRa: an evaluation of the synthetic species concept in Drosophila melanogaster

Waters, AJC, Paolo; Gaboriau, David C. A.; Papathanos, Philippos Aris; Windbichler, Nikolai,  Scientific Reports,  8:13125. 2018.
The ability to erect rationally-engineered reproductive barriers in animal or plant species promises to enable a number of biotechnological applications such as the creation of genetic firewalls, the containment of gene drives or novel population replacement and suppression ...
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Behavior of homing endonuclease gene drives targeting genes required for viability or female fertility with multiplexed guide RNAs

Oberhofer, GI, Tobin; Hay, Bruce A.,  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,  115:e9343. 2018.
Homing endonuclease gene (HEG)-based gene drive can bring about population suppression when genes required for viability or fertility are targeted. However, these strategies are vulnerable to failure through mechanisms that create alleles resistant to cleavage but that retain ...
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Advancing a new toolkit for conservation: From science to policy

Novak, BJM, T.; Phelan, R.,  CRISPR Journal,  1:11-15. 2018.
Climate change and non-native wildlife diseases are exacerbating persistent challenges to biodiversity such as habitat destruction, invasive species and over-harvesting. With these increasing threats there is a pressing need to expand the conservationists' toolbox. CRISPR-Cas9 ...
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Gene Drives Can Wipe Out Entire Species… Or Save Them

Gizmodo,  ,  2017.
Bill Gates and other investors have poured millions into gene drives. So what is the technology and why are scientists worried about it?
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Open, Local, and Obligated

Yale University,  ,  2017.
Kevin Esvelt, PhD, assistant professor at the MIT Media Lab and leader of the Sculpting Evolution Group talks about the need for new scientific structures based on transparency and open. This lecture was given at the 2017 Editing Nature Summit.
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CRISPR’s Gene Drive Could Revive Extinct Species–or Create New Ones | Jennifer Doudna

Big Think,  ,  2017.
A leading gene editing scientist, Jennifer Doudna, discusses gene drive and their applications as well as de-extinction technologies.
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Gene Drives: A scientific case for a complete and perpetual ban

Latham, J,  GeneWatch,  2017.
One of the central issues of our day is how to safely manage the outputs of industrial innovation. Novel products incorporating nanotechnology, biotechnology, rare metals, microwaves, novel chemicals, and more, enter the market on a daily basis. Yet none of these products come ...
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Sterile Insect Techniques, GE mosquitoes and gene drives

Hanson, J,  GeneWatch,  2017.
One of the great temptations in any field is to promote your solution to a problem as the only solution. The recent application of gene drives to sterilize mosquitoes that transmit malaria or viruses like dengue and zika is an example of this tendency to first develop a ...
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Principles for gene drive research

Emerson, CJ, Stephanie; Littler, Katherine; Randazzo, Filippo,  Science,  358:1135. 2017.
The recent outbreak of Zika virus in the Americas renewed attention on the importance of vector-control strategies to fight the many vector-borne diseases that continue to inflict suffering around the world. In 2015, there were ?212 million infections and a death every minute ...
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CRISPR/Cas9 gene drives in genetically variable and nonrandomly mating wild populations

Drury, DWD, A. L.; Siniard, D. J.; Zentner, G. E.; Wade, M. J.,  Science Advances,  3:e1601910. 2017.
Synthetic gene drives based on CRISPR/Cas9 have the potential to control, alter, or suppress populations of crop pests and disease vectors, but it is unclear how they will function in wild populations. Using genetic data from four populations of the flour beetle Tribolium ...
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Engineering species-like barriers to sexual reproduction

Maselko, MH, Stephen C.; Chacón, Jeremy M.; Harcombe, William R.; Smanski, Michael J.,  Nature Communications,  8:883. 2017.