Keywords: mosquito

Intron-derived small RNAs for silencing viral RNAs in mosquito cells

P. Y. L. Tng, L. Z. Carabajal Paladino, M. A. E. Anderson, Z. N. Adelman, R. Fragkoudis, R. Noad and L. Alphey,  PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases,  16:e0010548. 2022.
Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors of mosquito-borne viruses of medical and veterinary significance. Many of these viruses have RNA genomes. Exogenously provided, e.g. transgene encoded, small RNAs could be used to inhibit virus replication, breaking the ...
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Sexual transmission of Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV) leads to disseminated infection in mated females

K. L. Werling, R. M. Johnson, H. C. Metz and J. L. Rasgon,  Parasites and Vectors,  15:219. 2022.
Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV) is an insect-specific, single-stranded DNA virus that infects An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.), the major mosquito species responsible for transmitting malaria parasites throughout sub-Saharan Africa. AgDNV is a benign virus that is very ...
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Current Status of Mosquito Handling, Transporting and Releasing in Frame of the Sterile Insect Technique

J. Guo, X. Zheng, D. Zhang and Y. Wu,  Insects,  13. 2022.
The sterile insect technique (SIT) and its related technologies are considered to be a powerful weapon for fighting against mosquitoes. As an important part of the area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs, SIT can help reduce the use of chemical pesticides for ...
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Wolbachia 16S rRNA haplotypes detected in wild Anopheles stephensi in eastern Ethiopia

E. Waymire, S. Duddu, S. Yared, D. Getachew, D. Dengela, S. R. Bordenstein, M. Balkew, S. Zohdy, S. R. Irish and T. E. Carter,  Parasites and Vectors,  15:178. 2022.
About two out of three Ethiopians are at risk of malaria, a disease caused by the parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Anopheles stephensi, an invasive vector typically found in South Asia and the Middle East, was recently found to be distributed across eastern ...
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Self-Deleting Genes Could Control Mosquitoes And Prevent Vector-Borne Diseases

A. Russell,  Texas AM TODAY,  2022.
Texas A&M AgriLife Research scientists are testing a technology to make temporary genetic modifications in mosquitoes that self-delete over time. The mechanism to make temporary genetic changes could be important for scientists hoping to modify mosquitoes in ways that help manage ...
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The fight against malaria

F. Ammache,  Year 2049,  2022.
Malaria is a disease we’ve been dealing with for thousands of years. Traces of the malaria parasite have been found in the remains of Egyptian mummies. Hippocrates described the fevers caused by malaria in Ancient Greece. The mosquito-filled Pontine Marshes protected Ancient ...
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Self-eliminating genes tested on mosquitoes

A. Russell,  AGRILIFE Today,  2022.
Texas A&M AgriLife Research scientists have tested a technology to make temporary genetic modifications in mosquitoes. The modifications self-delete over time. Texas A&M AgriLife Research scientists published an article detailing a mechanism to make temporary genetic alterations ...
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Genetically Modified Mosquitoes May Be Released in California, Experts Express Concern

Z. Papadakis,  NEWSMAX,  2022.
Millions of genetically engineered mosquitos could soon be set loose in California in an effort to curb the disease-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquito population — but some experts are concerned that it could backfire. On March 7, Oxitec, a private company, obtained a permit from ...
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Comparison of Ground Release and Drone-Mediated Aerial Release of Aedes aegypti Sterile Males in Southern Mexico: Efficacy and Challenges

C. F. Marina, P. Liedo, J. G. Bond, A. R. Osorio, J. Valle, R. Angulo-Kladt, Y. Gómez-Simuta, I. Fernández-Salas, A. Dor and T. Williams,  Insects,  13. 2022.
Sterile males of Aedes aegypti were released once a week for 8 weeks to evaluate the dispersal efficiency of ground and aerial drone release methods in a rural village of 26 Ha in southern Mexico. Indoor and outdoor BG-Sentinel traps were placed in 13–16 houses distributed ...
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Gene drives and population persistence vs elimination: The impact of spatial structure and inbreeding at low density

P. J. Beaghton and A. Burt,  Theoretical Population Biology,  2022.
Synthetic gene drive constructs are being developed to control disease vectors, invasive species, and other pest species. In a well-mixed random mating population a sufficiently strong gene drive is expected to eliminate a target population, but it is not clear whether the same ...
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Should we kill every mosquito on Earth?

J. Phelan,  LiveScience,  2022.
Before you grab that can of bug spray, know this: While some mosquitoes are dangerous to us, not all are. Even those that are sometimes harmful tend not to feed on humans, preferring honeydew, plant sap and nectar, according to Mosquito Joe, a mosquito control company. There are ...
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Increased biting rate and decreased Wolbachia density in irradiated Aedes mosquitoes

R. Moretti, E. Lampazzi, C. Damiani, G. Fabbri, G. Lombardi, C. Pioli, A. Desiderio, A. Serrao and M. Calvitti,  Parasites and Vectors,  15:67. 2022.
Releasing considerable numbers of radiation-sterilized males is a promising strategy to suppress mosquito vectors. However, releases may also include small percentages of biting females, which translate to non-negligible numbers when releases are large. Currently, the effects of ...
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A UC malaria initiative program receives grant for work researching genetically engineered mosquitoes

S. Slater,  The California Aggie,  2022.
Malaria, a mosquito-borne infectious disease, was discovered in 1880, and has remained widespread in tropical regions around the equator including parts of Africa, Asia and Latin America, resulting in thousands of deaths and a significant blow to economic development in these ...
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Evaluation of anti-malaria potency of wild and genetically modified Enterobacter cloacae expressing effector proteins in Anopheles stephensi

H. Dehghan, S. H. Mosa-Kazemi, B. Yakhchali, N. Maleki-Ravasan, H. Vatandoost and M. A. Oshaghi,  Parasites and Vectors,  15:63. 2022.
Malaria is one of the most lethal infectious diseases in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Paratransgenesis using symbiotic bacteria offers a sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy to combat this disease. In the study reported here, we evaluated the ...
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C-type lectin 4 regulates broad-spectrum melanization-based refractoriness to malaria parasites

M. L. Simões, Y. Dong, G. Mlambo and G. Dimopoulos,  PLOS Biology,  20:e3001515. 2022.
Anopheles gambiae melanization-based refractoriness to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has rarely been observed in either laboratory or natural conditions, in contrast to the rodent model malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei that can become completely melanized by ...
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Could Crispr Flip the Switch on Insects’ Resistance to Pesticides?

E. Mullin,  WIRED,  2022.
WHILE THE COVID-19 pandemic raged across the world in 2020, another disease was quietly infecting more than 220 million people on the continent of Africa: malaria. That year, the disease led to more than 600,000 deaths, most of them children. Caused by the parasite Plasmodium, ...
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CRISPR Technology Can Eliminate Disease-Spreading Mosquitoes

S. Krishana,  Now,  2022.
Scientists have uncovered a new technique they call the “precision-guided sterile insect technique,” or pgSIT. While most CRISPR procedures affect organisms that spread diseases by passing a gene change down generations, this system is more limited. It targets male mosquito ...
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Genetic strategy reverses insecticide resistance

M. Aguilera,  Phys Org,  2022.
University of California San Diego biologists have now developed a method that reverses insecticide resistance using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. As described in Nature Communications, researchers Bhagyashree Kaduskar, Raja Kushwah and Professor Ethan Bier with the Tata Institute for ...
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Nuclear technique cuts mosquito numbers in Cuban trial

M. A. Madsen,  IAEA,  2022.
A pilot trial of a SIT campaign was conducted between April and August 2020 in an area of 50 hectares in El Cano, an isolated neighbourhood of southwest Havana. Arroyo Arenas, another neighbourhood of similar size, was used as an untreated control site. In the pilot trial, almost ...
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Effects of Sterile Males and Fertility of Infected Mosquitoes on Mosquito-Borne Disease Dynamics

X. L. Sun, S. Q. Liu, Y. F. Lv and Y. Z. Pei,  Bulletin of Mathematical Biology,  84:33. 2022.
By studying an infection-age structured model, we consider the effects of releasing sterile males and the fertility of infected mosquitoes on the mosquito-borne diseases transmission including the extinction of mosquitoes, the elimination and persistence of diseases. Firstly, ...
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Reversing insecticide resistance with allelic-drive in Drosophila melanogaster

B. Kaduskar, R. B. S. Kushwah, A. Auradkar, A. Guichard, M. Li, J. B. Bennett, A. H. F. Julio, J. M. Marshall, C. Montell and E. Bier,  Nature Communications,  13:291. 2022.
A recurring target-site mutation identified in various pests and disease vectors alters the voltage gated sodium channel (vgsc) gene (often referred to as knockdown resistance or kdr) to confer resistance to commonly used insecticides, pyrethroids and DDT. The ubiquity of kdr ...
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The prince, the mayor, and the U.S. fish that ate Japan

C. Elliot,  National Geographic,  2022.
When Crown Prince Akihito visited Chicago on October 3, 1960, his sole request was to visit Shedd Aquarium. Then Mayor Richard J. Daley, an avid angler, presented the prince with a gift that he scooped with a net from one of the tanks himself: 18 bluegills, the official Illinois ...
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Introgression of the Aedes aegypti red-eye genetic sexing strains into different genomic backgrounds for sterile insect technique applications

A. A. Augustinos , K. Nikolouli , L. D. De La Fuente , M. Misbah-Ul-Haq, D. O. Carvalho and K. Bourtzis,  Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology,  2022.
Aedes aegypti is an invasive mosquito species and major vector of human arboviruses. A wide variety of control methods have been employed to combat mosquito populations. One of them is the sterile insect technique (SIT) that has recently attracted considerable research efforts ...
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Lab-scale characterization and semi-field trials of Wolbachia Strain wAlbB in a Taiwan Wolbachia introgressed Ae. aegypti strain

W. L. Liu, H. Y. Yu, Y. X. Chen, B. Y. Chen, S. N. Leaw, C. H. Lin, M. P. Su, L. S. Tsai, Y. Chen, S. H. Shiao, Z. Y. Xi, A. C. C. Jang and C. H. Chen,  PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases,  16:24. 2022.
Author summaryPrior to open field release, new genetic approaches that interfere with mosquito abilities and reduce mosquito population density require progressive evaluation both in the laboratory and contained field trials. Trials in contained outdoor systems are thus an ...
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The Need for a Tiered Registry for US Gene Drive Governance

K. L. Warmbrod, A. L. Kobokovich, R. West, G. K. Gronvall and M. Montague,  Health Security,  2022.
A great deal of attention has been focused on the potential risks of gene drives, the kinds of biosafety protections they may require, and how they may be reversed; however, less attention has been paid to the systems that would be useful to have in place in the future, when ...
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Information Sharing in Senegal on the Gene Drive Technology as a potential Complementary Tool for Malaria Vector Control

AUDA-NEPAD in partnership with the National Biosafety Authority (Autorité Nationale de Biosécurité (ANB) in Senegal organized an Information sharing meeting on the gene drive technology as a complementary tool for malaria vector control, from 22-23 December 2021, in Somone, ...
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Driving the Self-Destruction of Malaria-Transmitting Mosquitos

H. Aliouche,  News Medical Life Sciences,  2021.
Self-destruction of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes can be driven by gene drives deployed to manipulate natural populations. In particular, they can be used to reduce the number of individuals in a population or to modify their composition; this is particularly useful when such ...
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Temporal Viability of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Eggs Using Two Hygroscopic Substances as Preservatives under a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) Program in Southern Mexico

E. N. Martínez-García, E. E. Díaz-González, C. F. Marina, J. G. Bond, J. J. Rodríguez-Rojas, G. Ponce-García, R. M. Sánchez-Casas and I. Fernández-Salas,  Insects,  13. 2021.
Dengue and other Aedes-borne diseases have dramatically increased over the last decades. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been successfully used as part of integrated pest strategies to control populations of insect-plant and livestock pests and is currently being tested as ...
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Integrated Management of Malaria Vectors in Africa

R. Mbabazi, K. Maredia, B. B. El-Sayed, A. K. Babumba, M. Savadogo and O. Akinbo,  Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies,  2021.
Malaria disease is a major public health burden in Africa. The control of malaria vectors is a critical component for prevention, management, and eradication of malaria disease. This chapter presents information on the current status of malaria vector control in Africa with ...
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Genetic Improvements to the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) for the Control of Mosquito Population

P. V. D. Dilani, Y. I. N. S. Gunawardene and R. S. Dassanayake,  Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies,  2021.
Mosquito-borne diseases are becoming a major health problem worldwide. At present, the principal method of controlling these diseases entirely depends on the mosquito vector control strategies. However, traditional control methods which are focussed on reducing mosquito ...
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Towards Integrated Management of Dengue in Mumbai

P. N. Paradkar, P. R. Sahasrabudhe, M. Ghag Sawant, S. Mukherjee and K. R. Blasdell,  Viruses,  13. 2021.
With increasing urbanisation, the dengue disease burden is on the rise in India, especially in large cities such as Mumbai. Current dengue surveillance in Mumbai includes municipal corporation carrying out specific activities to reduce mosquito breeding sites and the use of ...
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Wolbachia cifB induces cytoplasmic incompatibility in the malaria mosquito vector

K. L. Adams, D. G. Abernathy, B. C. Willett, E. K. Selland, M. A. Itoe and F. Catteruccia,  Nature Microbiology,  6:1575-1582. 2021.
Wolbachia, a maternally inherited intracellular bacterial species, can manipulate host insect reproduction by cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which results in embryo lethality in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. CI is encoded by two prophage genes, cifA ...
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Gene drives and population persistence vs elimination: the impact of spatial structure and inbreeding at low density

P. J. Beaghton and A. Burt,  bioRxiv,  2021.11.11.468225. 2021.
Synthetic gene drive constructs are being developed to control disease vectors, invasive species, and other pest species. In a well-mixed random mating population a sufficiently strong gene drive is expected to eliminate a target population, but it is not clear whether the same ...
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High Temperature Cycles Result in Maternal Transmission and Dengue Infection Differences Between Wolbachia Strains in Aedes aegypti

M. V. Mancini, T. H. Ant, C. S. Herd, J. Martinez, S. M. Murdochy, D. D. Gingell, E. Mararo, P. C. D. Johnson and S. P. Sinkins,  mBio,  e0025021. 2021.
Environmental factors play a crucial role in the population dynamics of arthropod endosymbionts, and therefore in the deployment of Wolbachia symbionts for the control of dengue arboviruses. The potential of Wolbachia to invade, persist, and block virus transmission depends in ...
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Will freeing ourselves (forever) from mosquitoes soon be a realizable “dream”? Pros and cons of an epochal turning point – breaking latest news

Annonymous,  Breaking Latest News,  2021.
Also true for a dangerous insect like the mosquito: due to the pathologies of which vector, such as the malaria, the dengue o la yellow fever, every year in the world about 800 thousand people die. There are therefore quite a few reasons to want to get rid of it, not just the ...
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Containment Practices for Arthropods Modified with Engineered Transgenes Capable of Gene Drive Addendum 1 to the Arthropod Containment Guidelines, Version 3.2

American Committee of Medical Entomology,  Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases,  2021.
Responsible conduct of research is a cornerstone of rigorous scientific discovery. Institutional committees, independent advisory panels, and expert steering groups are among the frameworks in academia meant to provide guidance and assurances that research activities do not ...
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Gene drive revolution: How genetically tweaked mosquitoes could tip the balance in the battle to contain malaria

F. Okumu,  Genetic Literacy Project,  2021.
In 2016, a World Health Organisation (WHO) panel concluded that even with the best use of current approaches, there would still be 11 million malaria cases in 2050. What’s needed are longer-term integrated strategies to complement current methods. These may include large-scale ...
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Africa must not rest until Malaria rests: What is the role of emerging technologies?

R. Oronje,  AFIDEP,  2021.
As we mark the World Mosquito Day today, it is a sad reminder that Malaria still kills hundreds of thousands of people every year, majority of these people in Africa. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), Malaria killed 409,000 people in 2019, and 94% of these deaths ...
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Breakthrough in non-GMO malaria control

C. Robinson and J. Matthews,  GM Watch,  2021.
A just-published study carried out in a high-security lab claims to show that a CRISPR gene drive (a way of forcing a heritable genetic modification through a whole species or population) can crash populations of malaria-spreading mosquitoes. But why crash mosquito populations ...
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Yes, genetically modified mosquitoes do exist, but they don’t bite and aren’t harmful to humans

E. Jones and M. Chamberlin,  WKYC Studios,  2021.
In 2021, Oxitec, a biotechnology company that develops genetically modified insects that safely and sustainably control pests that spread disease, damage crops and harm livestock across the globe, partnered with the Florida Keys Mosquito Control District (FKMCD) to evaluate the ...
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Gene Drives – Engineering the Wild

L. Sharratt,  Sentinel,  2021.
So far, genetically engineered organisms have been mostly limited to agricultural use, with partial success. Around the world, a few major crops (mostly corn, soy, and cotton) are genetically engineered, predominantly for herbicide tolerance and insect resistance. However, the ...
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Scientists develop new technology that gives greater control for managing malaria mosquitoes

Keele University,  Phy Org,  2021.
Researchers including a Keele University scientist have engineered an innovative approach to disable highly powerful genetic devices that control harmful insect populations. Dr. Roberto Galizi from Keele's School of Life Sciences was part of a research team that previously ...
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A genetically encoded anti-CRISPR protein constrains gene drive spread and prevents population suppression

C. Taxiarchi, A. Beaghton, N. I. Don, K. Kyrou, M. Gribble, D. Shittu, S. P. Collins, C. L. Beisel, R. Galizi and A. Crisanti,  Nature Communications,  12:3977. 2021.
CRISPR-based gene drives offer promising means to reduce the burden of pests and vector-borne diseases. These techniques consist of releasing genetically modified organisms carrying CRISPR-Cas nucleases designed to bias their inheritance and rapidly propagate desired ...
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CRISPR-mediated knock-in of transgenes into the malaria vector Anopheles funestus

C. Quinn, A. Anthousi, C. Wondji and T. Nolan,  G3 Genes Genomes Genetics,  11. 2021.
The ability to introduce mutations, or transgenes, of choice to precise genomic locations has revolutionized our ability to understand how genes and organisms work. In many mosquito species that are vectors of various human diseases, the advent of CRISPR genome editing tools has ...
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Fine-scale estimation of key life-history parameters of malaria vectors: implications for next-generation vector control technologies

A. L. Morris, A. Ghani and N. Ferguson,  Parasites and Vectors,  14:311. 2021.
Mosquito control has the potential to significantly reduce malaria burden on a region, but to influence public health policy must also show cost-effectiveness. Gaps in our knowledge of mosquito population dynamics mean that mathematical modelling of vector control interventions ...
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What is wrong in extinguishing a species? Charting the Ethical Challenges of using Gene-Drive Technologies to eradicate A. gambiae vector populations

M. Annoni and T. Pievani,  Biolaw Journal-Rivista Di Biodiritto,  2021.
This article analyses three ethical arguments against the use of gene-drive technologies to control for, and possibly extinguish, a particular species of vector mosquitoes (Anopheles gambiae) causing the malaria infection. We conclude that none of these arguments is truly ...
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Why the EU should back research into gene drive – even if Europe never uses it

R. Müller,  The Brussels Times,  2021.
As the EU’s Biodiversity Strategy reaches the European Parliament, it has reopened a worrying debate about research into gene drive technology, a tool which could pave the way for biasing the inheritance of desired genetic traits through targeted species. Advances in this kind ...
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Small-Cage Laboratory Trials of Genetically-Engineered Anopheline Mosquitoes

R. Carballar-Lejarazú, T. B. Pham, V. Bottino-Rojas, A. Adolfi and A. A. James,  J Vis Exp,  2021.