Supporters: Standardized Definition of Gene Drive

Standardizing the Definition of Gene Drive

L. S. Alphey, A. Crisanti, F. Randazzo and O. S. Akbari,  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,  202020417. 2020.
As members of the gene drive community, we have developed a set of definitions to help stakeholders discuss the topic and communicate using a common understanding of terms.

Definitions of “gene drive” from Alphey et al (2020):

“Because the field continues to evolve, we consider this a living document that will be hosted by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) GeneConvene Global Collaborative Virtual Institute (https://www.geneconvenevi.org/) and will be updated periodically as needed.

Gene drive: “Gene drive” is used both to describe a process or phenomenon (the biological activity of gene drive) and to describe an object (“a gene drive”). The term sometimes is also used to describe a management tool or intent for product development or regulatory purposes.

  1. Process or Phenomenon: A gene drive is a phenomenon of biased inheritance in which the prevalence of a genetic element (natural or synthetic) or specific alternate form of a gene (allele) is increased, even in the presence of some fitness cost. This leads to the preferential increase of a specific genotype that may determine a specific phenotype from one generation to the next, and potentially spread throughout a population.

Less technical version: A gene drive is a process that promotes or favors the biased inheritance of certain genes from generation to generation

  1. Material Object: A gene drive is comprised of one or more genetic elements that can cause the process of biased inheritance in its favor. The set of necessary elements may be referred to as a gene drive system or simply a “gene drive.”   Note that the presence of gene drive elements will not necessarily cause gene drive – many gene drive systems will cause the gene drive phenomenon only under specific circumstances, e.g. if they are present in the population above a certain threshold frequency, or if fitness costs are below a certain threshold. Note that gene drive, when defined as an object, need not always confer preferential transmission. Gene drives must ensure biased inheritance under at least some circumstances, but not necessarily all circumstances. For example, some gene drive systems confer preferential inheritance only when present in the population above a threshold frequency.

Less technical version: A gene drive is any genetic element able to bias its inheritance within a population.

  • Intention: A gene drive may be intended as a management tool to achieve a particular goal. A gene drive may include additional “cargo” elements, in addition to the drive components, that are intended to introduce new trait(s) into an interbreeding population so as to effect a change in the characteristics of the population. A gene drive also may cause effects directly, for example by inserting into and disrupting a target gene. Thus,

Less technical version: A gene drive is a tool to effect certain changes in a population.”

We invite all those interested in gene drive technologies to indicate your support for this standardization initiative by becoming a signatory, and to  use these definitions as appropriate in your publications and communications.

Register your support

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The following have expressed their support for these standardized definitions of gene drive

First Name Last Name Title Affiliation
ElenaDalla Benetta PhD UCSD
Yu Cai Senior Principal Investigator Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore
JohnMarshallAssistant Professor School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley
MichaelSantosAssociate Vice President, Science Foundation for NIH
Stephanie James Senior Vice President, Science Foundation for NIH
DavidO’BrochtaProfessor EmeritusDepartment of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park
Hector QuemadaPrincipal Research Associate Western Michigan University
HollyTutenAssociate Scientist – Vector Ecology University of Illinois
GordanaRasic Senior Research Officer QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute
Héctor M. Sánchez C. PhD University of California, Berkeley
WILLY TONUI Executive Director EHS Consultancy Ltd, Kenya
Charles Guissou Dr Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
Austin Burt Professor of Evolutionary Genetics Professor of Evolutionary Genetics
Omar Akbari Professor Professor
Tom Turpen Principal Technology Innovation Group
Tony Nolan Dr Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
Estela Gonzalez Fernandez PhD The Pirbright Institute
Luke Alphey Professor The Pirbright Institute
Raiza Stephany Rivera Research Assistant Institute on Ethics and Policy for Innovation, McMaster University
Matthew Grellette Research Associated Institute on Ethics and Policy for Innovation
Travis Ramsay Research and Policy Analyst Institute on Ethics and Policy for Innovation
Mamadou Coulibaly Vector Biologist Malaria Research & Training Center at the University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali
Jonathan Kayondo Dr. Uganda Virus Research Institute
Stephanie Gamez PhD Agragene Inc.
Diabate Abdoulaye DrIRSS
Moussa Savadogo Dr African Union Development Agency- Integrated Vector Control Program
ABDALLAH DAAR ProfessorMEMBER OF THE AFRICAN PANEL ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES (APET)
Camilla BeechMs Cambea Consulting Ltd
Monika Gulia- NussDr. University of Nevada Reno
Robert Friedman VP for Policy J. Craig Venter Institute
Molly Duman Scheel Professor Indiana University School of Medicine
Chitu Womehoma Princewill Dr. National Biotechnology Development Agency (NABDA)
TINGA JEREMY OUEDRAOGO Head African Biosafety Network of Expertise programme AUDA-NEPAD
Keshava Mysore Asst. Research Professor Indiana University
Joseph Wagman PhD PATH
Stephen Panossian Agricultural Inspector II Md. Dept. of Agriculture
Maria Luisa SimoesFaculty Research Associate Johns Hopkins University
Brian B. TarimoResearch Scientist Ifakara Health Institute
Filippo (Fil) Randazzo Ph.D. Leverage Science, LLC.
Fredros Okumu Director of Science Ifakara Health Institute
Louis K. Penali PhD Malriologist, Institut Pasteur Côte d’Ivoire
Claudia Emerson Director & Associate Professor Institute on Ethics & Policy for Innovation, McMaster University
Tibebu Habtewold dr Imperial College London
Kevin M. Esvelt Assistant Professor Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Anthony James Donald Bren and Distinguished Professor University of California, Irvine
Ivan Rwomushana Senior Scientist-Invasive Species CABI Kenya
Max Scott Professor NC State University
Damaris Matoke-Muhia Dr Kenya Medical Research Institute (Kemri)
Marius Walter Dr. Buck institute
Kanya Long Assistant Professor University of California, San Diego
RobynRaban Research Data Analyst University of California San Diego
Aaron Roberts Graduate Research Assistant Institute on Ethics and Policy for Innovation, McMaster University
Ann Njoki Kingiri Senior Researcher African Centre for Technology Studies
Nourou Barry Social scientist, PhD Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS/DRO)
AnnaLindholmPD Dr University of Zurich
Isaiah ShrinerResearch Assistant University of California, San Diego