Games in tetrads: Segregation, recombination, and meiotic drive

Haig, D,  American Naturalist,  176:404-413. 2010.

The two alleles at a heterozygous locus segregate during meiosis, sometimes at meiosis I and sometimes at meiosis II. The timing of segregation is determined by the pattern of crossing-over between a locus and its attached centromeres. Genes near centromeres can exploit this process by driving against spores from which the genes separated at meiosis I. Other genes, located distal to centromeres, can benefit from driving against spores from which they separated at meiosis II. Asymmetric female meiosis is particularly susceptible to such forms of drive. Selection on modifiers of recombination favors changes in the location of chiasmata that increase the proportion of tetrads of high average fitness by changing the timing of segregation. Such changes increase the frequency of driving alleles. This source of selection on recombination does not depend on effects on linkage disequilibrium. Recombinational responses to meiotic drive may contribute to sex differences in overall recombination and sex differences in the localization of chiasmata.