Sex-ration, meiotic drive, and group selectin in Drosophila pseudoobscura

Policansky, D,  American Naturalist,  108:75-90. 1974.

Sex ratio (SR) is a widespread genetic condition of the X-chromosome in Drosophila species which causes males to produce progenies consisting almost entirely of females. Results of samples from natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura and results of some laboratory experiments indicate that SR males produce only about half as many sperm as normal (ST) males; because of this deficiency, SR males are able to fertilize only about half as many eggs as ST males. These results explain the observed equilibria of frequencies of SR in natural populations, and suggest that, at least in the case of D. pseudoobscura, male fertility may be partly limited by the number of sperm males can produce.