The analytical review on futuristic use of CRISPR-Cpf1 aided gene drive technology

Satyam, R., N. Singh and T. Bhardwaj,  International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development,  2:525-530. 2019.

Organisms edited by gene editing or traditional selective breeding are typically less able to survive and reproduce which effectively prevents those alterations from spreading in the wild populations. This paper focuses on how the CRISPR-Cpf1 system can be used to build a Gene Drive capable of spreading particular alterations in the wild population, and its potential applications. Named for the ability to “drive” themselves and nearby genes through populations of organisms over many generations. Normally, the sexually reproducing organism comprises of 50-50% genetic information from both parents. But with gene drive, you can have 100% chance of passing a particular gene. The discovery of new Gene Editing Technology, based on the bacterial immune system, allow us to edit genome at specific sites with more precision, accuracy and ease. CRISPR Gene Drives including the edited version of the targeted gene and additional sequences with the DNA cutting Cpf1 protein and Guide RNA gene. When an organism containing a Gene Drive, mates with the wild counterparts, the offspring inherit one altered and one original copy of the target gene. The Guide RNAs Cpf1 directs to cut the original copy which is repaired by copying the altered gene as template synthesizing Gene Drive sequence in its place. Because the organism now has two identical copies of the alteration and the Gene Drive one on each chromosome, all of the organism will inherit both components. The same process will be repeated in subsequent generation causing the altered gene and Gene Drive to spread into the entire wild population. The Gene Drive technology has the potential to save millions of lives and give us unprecedented control over the natural world. This technology can be used to eradicate insect-born diseases, empower sustainable agriculture and promote ecological conservation.