Alternative strategies for mosquito-borne arbovirus control

Achee, NLG, J. P.; Vatandoost, H.; Seixas, G.; Pinto, J.; Ching-Ng, L.; Martins, A. J.; Juntarajumnong, W.; Corbel, V.; Gouagna, C.; David, J. P.; Logan, J. G.; Orsborne, J.; Marois, E.; Devine, G. J.; Vontas, J.,  PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases,  13:e0006822. 2019.

Mosquito-borne virusessuch as Zika, chikungunya, dengue fever, and yellow fever, among othersare of global importance. Although vaccine development for prevention of mosquito-borne arbovirus infections has been a focus, mitigation strategies continue to rely on vector control. However, vector control has failed to prevent recent epidemics and arrest expanding geographic distribution of key arboviruses, such as dengue. As a consequence, there has been increasing necessity to further optimize current strategies within integrated approaches and advance development of alternative, innovative strategies for the control of mosquito-borne arboviruses. Methods and findings This review, intended as a general overview, is one of a series being generated by the Worldwide Insecticide resistance Network (WIN). The alternative strategies discussed reflect those that are currently under evaluation for public health value by the World Health Organization (WHO) and represent strategies of focus by globally recognized public health stakeholders as potential insecticide resistance (IR)-mitigating strategies. Conditions where these alternative strategies could offer greatest public health value in consideration of mitigating IR will be dependent on the anticipated mechanism of action. Arguably, the most pressing need for endorsement of the strategies described here will be the epidemiological evidence of a public health impact. Conclusions As the burden of mosquito-borne arboviruses, predominately those transmitted by Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus, continues to grow at a global scale, new vector-control tools and integrated strategies will be required to meet public health demands. Decisions regarding implementation of alternative strategies will depend on key ecoepidemiological parameters that each is intended to optimally impact toward driving down arbovirus transmission. Author summary International public health workers are challenged by the burden of arthropod-borne viral diseases, to include mosquito-borne arboviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus due in part to lack of sustainable vector control and insecticide resistance (IR), as well as the inability to scale up and sustain existing interventions for prevention of urban epidemics. As a consequence, there has been increasing interest to advance the development of alternative methods. This review provides a general overview of alternative vector-control strategies under development for the control of arbovirus mosquito vectors and highlights how each could offer innovative public health value. Considerations to regulations, acceptance, and sustainability are also provided.