Keywords: mosquitoes

Mosquito population structure and gene-drive

Heredity Podcast,  2024.
Gene-drives hold great potential for the control of biological pests, but first they need to be thoroughly tested under appropriate conditions. In this episode we discuss some new work assessing whether mosquito populations in Northern Australia could be used to test a gene-drive ...
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Djibouti Unleashes Controversial Genetically Modified Mosquitoes

Palki Sharma,  Firstpost,  2024.
Djibouti is combatting malaria by employing a unique tactic: utilising mosquitoes to battle mosquitoes. The East African nation has released tens of thousands of genetically engineered mosquitoes armed with a "self-limiting" gene. This bioengineered gene aims to curb mosquito ...
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Genetically modified mosquitoes to fight malaria

The Naked Scientists,  2024.
Genetically engineered mosquitoes are taking to the air in an experiment to attempt to curtail malaria in Djibouti. The tiny African nation all but eliminated malaria just over a decade ago. But rising population and urbanisation has seen disease cases skyrocketing again, making ...
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Investigating the ecological role of malaria mosquitoes

Talya D. Hackett,  Outreach Network for Gene Drive Research,  2024.
A team of entomologists and ecologists at the University of Ghana have been working with colleagues from the University of Oxford and the Centre for Biodiversity Genomics at the University of Guelph on a groundbreaking project to investigate the potential ecological ...
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Gene drive mosquitoes designed to eliminate malaria – but governance is complex, new film shows

Russell Parton,  University of Exeter,  2024.
A radical new biotechnology could eliminate the mosquitoes that cause malaria, but in Uganda – where malaria is the leading cause of death – a lack of information and debate is undermining public debate on the issue. Professor Sarah Hartley’s new research documentary ...
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How to Use Genetic Biocontrol to Manage Insect Pests

Scientific Animations Without Borders,  YouTube,  2024.
Pest insects often transmit disease to humans and animals and destroy crops. Controlling these pests can improve human health and increase agricultural production. Pest insects are often controlled by releasing other insects into the environment that will specifically kill the ...
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How could genetic approaches be integrated in the malaria toolkit?

Damaris Matoke-Muhia,  Outreach Network for Gene Drive Research,  2024.
The Outreach Network for Gene Drive Research organized a symposium on the margins of the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM Society)’s 8th Pan-African Malaria Conference held last week in Kigali, Rwanda. The event explored how novel genetic approaches could be integrated ...
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To fend off aggressive female mosquitoes, L.A. is releasing thousands of sterile males

Evan Bush,  NBC News,  2024.
In Los Angeles, those who wage war on mosquitoes are adding a weapon to their arsenal: more mosquitoes. The Greater Los Angeles County Vector Control District on Thursday launched a pilot program to release tens of thousands of irradiated, lab-raised mosquitoes into the local ...
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Genetic and geographic population structure in the malaria vector, Anopheles farauti, provides a candidate system for pioneering confinable gene-drive releases

Ambrose, L., Allen, S.L., Iro’ofa, C. et al.,  Heredity,  132:232-246. 2024.
Indoor insecticide applications are the primary tool for reducing malaria transmission in the Solomon Archipelago, a region where Anopheles farauti is the only common malaria vector. Due to the evolution of behavioural resistance in some An. farauti populations, these ...
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Wolbachia infection-responsive immune genes suppress Plasmodium falciparum infection in Anopheles stephensi

Vandana V, Dong S, Sheth T, Sun Q, Wen H, Maldonado A, et al.,  PLoS Pathogens,  20. 2024.
Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted symbiotic bacterium of insects, can suppress a variety of human pathogens in mosquitoes, including malaria-causing Plasmodium in the Anopheles vector. However, the mechanistic basis of Wolbachia-mediated Plasmodium suppression in mosquitoes is ...
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A naturally isolated symbiotic bacterium suppresses flavivirus transmission by Aedes mosquitoes

Liming Zhang et al.,  Science,  384. 2024.
Flavivirus diseases are increasing in incidence and prevalence owing to the urban proclivities of its Aedes mosquito vector species. Extirpation of mosquitoes is considered key for the control of several human diseases but often involves toxic chemicals that prompt mosquito ...
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African health ministers commit to concerted action to end malaria deaths

Felista Tarimo,  Outreach Network for Gene Drive Research,  2024.
On March 6, health ministers from African countries with the highest burden of malaria met in Yaoundé, Cameroon, and signed a declaration committing to the fundamental principle “that no one should die from malaria.” The Declaration for Accelerated Malaria Mortality ...
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Genetically modified mosquitoes could one day end malaria

Alexis Akwagyiram,  Semafor,  2024.
Abdoulaye Diabaté, a scientist from Burkina Faso, is at the vanguard of efforts to eliminate malaria by editing the genetic makeup of male mosquitoes and releasing them in the wild to prevent the reproduction of female mosquito species that transmit malaria. The technique is ...
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Bacteria found in mosquito guts could help scientists fight dengue, Zika

Catherine Offord,  Science,  2024.
A team in China probing the guts of local mosquitoes has found a potential helper in the fight against two human diseases. Researchers identified a new bacterium that disables the viruses responsible for dengue and Zika before they can establish an infection in the insects. ...
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Genetic and geographic population structure in the malaria vector, Anopheles farauti, provides a candidate system for pioneering confinable gene-drive releases

Ambrose, L., Allen, S.L., Iro’ofa, C. et al.,  Heredity,  2024.
Indoor insecticide applications are the primary tool for reducing malaria transmission in the Solomon Archipelago, a region where Anopheles farauti is the only common malaria vector. Due to the evolution of behavioural resistance in some An. farauti populations, these ...
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Talking About Gene Drive in Uganda: The Need for Science Communication to Underpin Engagement

Hartley, S., Stelmach, A., Opesen, C., Openjuru, G. L., and Neema, S.,  Science Communication,  2024.
Uganda may host the world’s first field trials of gene drive mosquitoes for malaria control. Global North discourses pre-suppose African publics have access to information about gene drive and are ready to make decisions about its governance. We explore assumptions about the ...
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Biotech company implements controversial offspring-killing method to address dengue fever: ‘Will show a reduction of 20%’

Jeremiah Budin,  The Cool Down,  2024.
"We can get out of this state of emergency."
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Uganda and Djibouti seek Friendly mosquitoes to fight malaria

Richard Wetaya,  Alliance for Science,  2024.
According to Oxitec CEO Grey Frandsen, the Friendly technology platform was ideally equipped to produce a safe, sustainable solution to manage the Anopheles stephensi mosquito vector based on years of experience creating and deploying other Oxitec solutions at scale.
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Between the lab and the Wild: Establishing the Potential of Gene Drive Mosquitoes for Malaria Control

Mäkelin, M.,  Science as Culture,  2024.
Malaria control has been one of the defining goals in global health.
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On EAC’s GMO disharmony and little-known GM mosquito research

Gitura Mwaura,  The New Times,  2024.
A meeting in Dar es Salaam in November 2022 sought to chart the legal way forward for the Target Malaria and Transmission Zero Project, as the research initiative is called.
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Efficacy of Wolbachia-based mosquito control: Predictions of a spatially discrete mathematical model

David Dye, John W. Cain,  PLoS One,  19. 2024.
Wolbachia is an endosymbiont bacterium present in many insect species. When Wolbachia-carrying male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes mate with non-carrier females, their embryos are not viable due to cytoplasmic incompatibility. This phenomenon has been exploited successfully for the ...
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Flight Against Infections: The Role of Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes, with Dr. Stephanie James

EeKs on Health,  YouTube,  2024.
In this episode of Causes or Cures, Dr. Eeks chats with Dr. Stephanie James about the potential use of genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) to fight diseases that mosquitoes carry and spread, such as Malaria and Dengue Fever. In the podcast, Dr. James provides an overview ...
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Effectiveness evaluation of mosquito suppression strategies on dengue transmission under changing temperature and precipitation

Kaihui Liu, Shuanghui Fang, Qiong Li, et al.,  Acta Tropica,  2024.

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Mosquito Control releases over 100K sterile male mosquitos to combat Aedes aegypti population

NBC2 News,  YouTube,  2024.
Mosquito Control releases over 100K sterile male mosquitos to combat Aedes aegypti population
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Gene Drive Systems To Control Aedes Aegypti Mosquitoes Make Headway

Joshua Ang,  Outreach Network for Gene Drive Research,  2024.
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are known vectors of several diseases, including dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika, which impact millions of people worldwide each year. The effectiveness of existing insecticide-based methods to control this mosquito is threatened by growing ...
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Taking the fight against disease to mosquitoes

Gregory Devine,  Setopati,  2024.
In the medium term it's likely that suppression strategies involving self-limiting genetic modifications, Wolbachia infection and irradiation will be extended to a small number of our most important mosquito vectors of disease.
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South American cities release mosquitoes to stem disease

Roberto González,  SciDev.Net,  2024.
When Waldeir Barbosa da Silva explained to his family that he was going to release hundreds of thousands of mosquitoes into the open, infected with a bacterium, they were surprised. In Niterói, southeast Brazil, where da Silva lives, diseases spread by mosquitoes, such as ...
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Off the news: Gene-altered mosquitoes to the rescue

Star Advertiser,  2024.
A legal attempt to block deployment of genetically modified mosquitoes in a Maui forest was rejected in Circuit Court on Tuesday — cause for celebration among those hoping to save near-extinct species of Hawaiian honeycreepers. State and federal wildlife officials plan a staged ...
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Opinion: A cautionary tale of experimenting with genetically modified mosquitoes in Uganda

Barbara Ntambirweki,  The Independent,  2024.
The Uganda Virus Research Institute is pressing forward with gene drive technology which provides a way to rapidly, permanently, and genetically modify wild animals or plants. Gene drive organisms, are a genetically modified organism (GMO) designed to spread a genetic ...
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Anti-CRISPR Anopheles mosquitoes inhibit gene drive spread under challenging behavioural conditions in large cages

D’Amato, R., Taxiarchi, C., Galardini, M. et al.,  Nature Communications,  15:952. 2024.
CRISPR-based gene drives have the potential to spread within populations and are considered as promising vector control tools. A doublesex-targeting gene drive was able to suppress laboratory Anopheles mosquito populations in small and large cages, and it is considered for field ...
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Targeting sex determination to suppress mosquito populations

Ming Li, Nikolay P Kandul,Ruichen Sun, Ting Yang, Elena D Benetta, Daniel J Brogan, Igor Antoshechkin, Héctor M Sánchez C, Yinpeng Zhan, Nicolas A DeBeaubien, YuMin M Loh, Matthew P Su, Craig Montell, John M Marshall, Omar S Akbari,  eLife,  12. 2024.
Each year, hundreds of millions of people are infected with arboviruses such as dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika, which are all primarily spread by the notorious mosquito Aedes aegypti. Traditional control measures have proven insufficient, necessitating innovations. ...
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Gene driver flies and quantum finance: News from Imperial

Bryony Ravate, Hayley Dunning,  Imperial College London,  2024.
Researchers have created the first gene drive for the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), a global agricultural pest affecting food production. The team was led by Dr Nikolai Windbichler and Dr Angela Meccariello at Imperial's Department of Life Sciences, and included ...
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New gene-editing tools may help wipe out mosquito-borne diseases

Greg Allen,  NPR,  2024.
In the age-old war of human versus mosquitoes, the bugs have been winning. At least 700,000 people die every year from mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, West Nile and yellow fever. Global trade and climate change have helped disease-carrying species become ...
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Scientists create first transgenic mosquito strain in Africa

CGTN Africa,  YouTube,  2024.
Scientists in Tanzania have created the first transgenic mosquito strain in Africa. This genetically modified strain aims to prevent malaria transmission.
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The epidemiology of imported and locally-acquired dengue in Australia, 2012–2022

Asma Sohail, Katherine L Anders, Sarah L McGuinness, Karin Leder,  Journal of Travel Medicine,  2024.
Dengue is the most important arboviral disease globally, and poses ongoing challenges for control including in non-endemic countries with competent mosquito vectors at risk of local transmission through imported cases. We examined recent epidemiological trends in imported and ...
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Maxizyme-mediated suppression of chikungunya virus replication and transmission in transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

Mishra P, Balaraman V, Fraser Jr. M,  Frontiers in Microbiology,  14. 2024.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen of significant public health importance. There are currently no prophylactic vaccines or therapeutics available to control CHIKV. One approach to arbovirus control that has been proposed is the replacement of ...
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Mosquito makeover: Tahiti’s groundbreaking solution to disease

Atutahi Potaka-Dewes,  Pacific Media Network,  2024.
Mosquitoes are responsible for transmitting such diseases as dengue, malaria, zika, chikungunya, or filariosis, causing millions of deaths worldwide. French Polynesia is taking a groundbreaking initiative to address public health concerns and demonstrate a commitment to finding ...
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Ge­net­i­cally modified mos­quitoes

The SoCal Scene Staff,  Spectrum News 1,  2024.
In the battle against pests, the deadliest insect in the world has become the mosquito. There’s no silver bullet to eradicate it, but one company is looking to change that, using a method that seems out of the future. 
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Sex or poison? Genetic pest management in the 21st century

Luke Alphey,  BMC Biology,  21:289. 2024.
Pests do enormous damage to human and animal health, to agriculture and to biodiversity, with mosquitoes transmitting pathogens, insect larvae eating crops or invasive rodents threatening the last island refuges of endangered birds. This commentary focuses on insects, ...
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The mosquito knows no borders: Regional challenges for global confrontation in the dengue battle

Barçante JMdP, Cherem J,  PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases,  18. 2024.
Dengue fever is a neglected disease with a global impact, and its incidence and geographical reach are rapidly expanding. Global warming marked by higher average temperatures, precipitation, and longer periods of drought could prompt a record number of dengue fever infections ...
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Gene Drive Technology Unlocks Innovative Potential Solutions At The Intersection Of Climate Change And Public Health

Krystal Birungi,  African Media Agency,  2023.
The inaugural ‘Day of Health’ at the UN Climate Conference (COP-28) highlighted the dramatic impact of climate change on health, diseases and in particular on malaria. Heads of State and climate experts converged in Dubai to emphasise the indisputable link between climate ...
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Large-scale releases and establishment of wMel Wolbachia in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes throughout the Cities of Bello, Medellín and Itagüí, Colombia

Velez ID, Uribe A, Barajas J, Uribe S, Ángel S, Suaza-Vasco JD, et al.,  PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases,  2023.
The wMel strain of Wolbachia has been successfully introduced into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and has been shown to reduce the transmission of dengue and other Aedes-borne viruses. Here we report the entomological results from phased, large-scale releases ...
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Scientific report urges debate on genetic modification to control insect pests

Bob Weber,  CTV News,  2023.
Scientists are learning to turn the genetics of insect pests against themselves, altering the genome of familiar foes in ways that give farmers and doctors new ways to fight them. The burgeoning field offers fresh hope against old scourges such as malaria. And it could provide ...
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The suppression of a selfish genetic element increases a male’s mating success in a fly

Sophie Lyth, Andrea J. Betancourt, Tom A. R. Price, Rudi L. Verspoor,  Ecology and Evolution,  2023.
X chromosome meiotic drive (XCMD) kills Y-bearing sperm during spermatogenesis, leading to the biased transmission of the selfish X chromosome. Despite this strong transmission, some natural XCMD systems remain at low and stable frequencies, rather than rapidly spreading through ...
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What are gene drives?

Anonymous,  MalariaGEN,  2023.
Among the new generation of technological tools being developed to combat malaria, there is a lot of buzz around gene drives. This is a method for genetically modifying malaria-spreading mosquitoes and ultimately reducing or replacing their populations. But how exactly do gene ...
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Biotechnological Potential of Microorganisms for Mosquito Population Control and Reduction in Vector Competence

R. D. Katak, A. M. Cintra, B. C. Burini, O. Marinotti, J. A. Souza-Neto and E. M. Rocha,  Insects,  14. 2023.
Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause human diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya, yellow fever, Zika fever, and filariasis. Biotechnological approaches using microorganisms have a significant potential to control mosquito populations and reduce their vector ...
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Symbiotic Wolbachia in mosquitoes and its role in reducing the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases: updates and prospects

Awoke Minwuyelet, Giulio Petronio Petronio, Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Andrea Sciarretta, Irene Magnifico, Daria Nicolosi, Roberto Di Marco, Getnet Atenafu,,  Frontiers in Microbiology,  14. 2023.
Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, West Nile virus, chikungunya, Zika fever, and filariasis have the greatest health and economic impact. These mosquito-borne diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Due to the ...
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Can Gene-Drives Combat Vector-Borne Diseases?

Anonymous,  tomorrow.bio,  2023.
Scientists, technophiles, and the medical community are abuzz with a topic that sounds like science fiction: gene-drives. Given the growing fear of vector-borne diseases, wouldn’t it be marvelous if we could meddle with genetics to drive vectors like mosquitoes to extinction? ...
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Malaria’s latest foe? Bacteria.

M. Coulson,  Johns Hopkins,  2023.
In a new paper published in Science, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena, PhD, professor emeritus in Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, and his colleagues, in collaboration with researchers at GSK Global Health Medicines R&D, show that a naturally occurring bacterium and a chemical it ...
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Suppression Trial through an Integrated Vector Management of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) Based on the Sterile Insect Technique in a Non-Isolated Area in Spain

C. Tur, D. Almenar, M. Zacarés, S. Benlloch-Navarro, I. Pla and V. Dalmau,  Insects,  14. 2023.
In recent years, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1984) has expanded its distribution globally due to its high ecological plasticity. This expansion has increased the population’s susceptibility to contracting diseases such as dengue, Zika, and chikungunya, among others, which are ...
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Draft environmental assessment released for using modified mosquitoes to save native birds on Kauaʻi

Anonymous,  Big Island NOW,  2023.
Today, the draft environmental assessment was made public for the use of Wolbachia-based incompatible male mosquitoes on Kauaʻi to stop the spread of avian malaria that is decimating native forest bird populations. The public has 31 days — from June 23 until July 24 — to ...
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CRISPR-mediated germline mutagenesis for genetic sterilization of Anopheles gambiae males

A. L. Smidler, D. G. Paton, G. M. Church, W. R. Shaw and F. Catteruccia,  bioRxiv,  2023.06.13.544841. 2023.
Rapid spread of insecticide resistance among anopheline mosquitoes threatens malaria elimination efforts, necessitating development of alternative vector control technologies. Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been successfully implemented in multiple insect pests to suppress ...
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Mosquito gene targeted RNAi studies for vector control

M. Yadav, N. Dahiya and N. Sehrawat,  Functional and Integrative Genomics,  23:180. 2023.
Vector-borne diseases are serious public health concern. Mosquito is one of the major vectors responsible for the transmission of a number of diseases like malaria, Zika, chikungunya, dengue, West Nile fever, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, and yellow fever. ...
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Adversarial interspecies relationships facilitate population suppression by gene drive in spatially explicit models

Y. Liu, W. Teo, H. Yang and J. Champer,  Ecology Letters,  2023.
Abstract Suppression gene drives bias their inheritance to spread through a population, potentially eliminating it when they reach high frequency. CRISPR homing suppression drives have already seen success in the laboratory, but several models predict that success may be elusive ...
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The boundary problem: Defining and delineating the community in field trials with gene drive organisms

N. de Graeff, I. Pirson, R. van der Graaf, A. L. Bredenoord and K. R. Jongsma,  Bioethics,  2023.
Despite widespread and worldwide efforts to eradicate vector-borne diseases such as malaria, these diseases continue to have an enormous negative impact on public health. For this reason, scientists are working on novel control strategies, such as gene drive technologies (GDTs). ...
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Defining transformation events for gene drive in species complexes

J. B. Connolly,  IOBC-WPRS Bulletin,  163:8-20. 2023.
Engineered gene drives (EGDs) that allow the super-Mendelian inheritance of genetic traits could one day be used to reduce the vectorial capacity of Anopheles species that transmit human malaria in Africa. Many Anopheles species belong to complexes of closely related sibling ...
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In The Face Of Nigerian Mosquito Nets, Westerners’ Gene Editing Offers Hope

O. Onwumere,  The Nigerian Voice,  2023.
In Nigeria, the utilization of mosquito nets is prevalent, while in the Western world, optimism is associated with the implementation of gene editing technology. In this article, ODIMEGWU ONWUMERE reports that malaria could soon be eradicated in Nigeria. According to US ...
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RNA interference is essential to modulating the pathogenesis of mosquito-borne viruses in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

G. H. Samuel, T. Pohlenz, Y. Dong, N. Coskun, Z. N. Adelman, G. Dimopoulos and K. M. Myles,  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,  120:e2213701120. 2023.
While it has long been known that the transmission of mosquito-borne viruses depends on the establishment of persistent and nonlethal infections in the invertebrate host, specific roles for the insects? antiviral immune pathways in modulating the pathogenesis of viral infections ...
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First report of natural Wolbachia infections in mosquitoes from Cuba

A. Ruiz, G. Gutiérrez-Bugallo, R. Rodríguez-Roche, L. Pérez, R. González-Broche, L. A. Piedra, L. C. Martínez, Z. Menéndez, A. Vega-Rúa and J. A. Bisset,  Acta Tropica,  242:106891. 2023.
Mosquitoes are extensively responsible for the transmission of pathogens. Novel strategies using Wolbachia could transform that scenario, since these bacteria manipulate mosquito reproduction, and can confer a pathogen transmission-blocking phenotype in culicids. Here, we ...
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Alleviating the burden of malaria with gene drive technologies? A biocentric analysis of the moral permissibility of modifying malaria mosquitoes

N. de Graeff, K. R. Jongsma and A. L. Bredenoord,  Journal of Medical Ethics,  2023.
Gene drive technologies (GDTs) have been proposed as a potential new way to alleviate the burden of malaria, yet have also raised ethical questions. A central ethical question regarding GDTs relates to whether it is morally permissible to intentionally modify or eradicate ...
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East Maui project hopes mosquito v. mosquito mating battle will save endangered birds

K. Cerizo,  MAUINOW,  2022.

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A comprehensive overview of the existing microbial symbionts in mosquito vectors: An important tool for impairing pathogentransmission

V. Vandana, M. P. Kona, J. Kumar, O. P. Singh and K. C. Pandey,  Experimental Parasitology,  243. 2022.
The emergence of drug-resistant parasites and/or insecticide-resistant mosquito vectors necessitates developing alternative tools that either supplement or replace the conventional malaria control strategies. Trans-infecting the mosquito vector with symbionts that can either ...
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Expression of mosquito miRNAs in entomopathogenic fungus induces pathogen-mediated host RNA interference and increases fungal efficacy

C. Cui, Y. Wang, Y. Li, P. Sun, J. Jiang, H. Zhou, J. Liu and S. Wang,  Cell Reports,  41:111527. 2022.
Summary The growing threat of insecticide resistance prompts the urgent need to develop additional tools for mosquito control. Entomopathogenic fungi provide an eco-friendly alternative to chemical insecticides. One limitation to the use of mycoinsecticides is their relatively ...
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Justifying an Intentional Species Extinction: The Case of Anopheles gambiae

D. E. Callies and Y. Rohwer,  Environmental Values,  31:193-210. 2022.
Each year, over 200 million people are infected with the malaria parasite, nearly half a million of whom succumb to the disease. Emerging genetic technologies could, in theory, eliminate the burden of malaria throughout the world by intentionally eradicating the mosquitoes that ...
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Gene drive mosquitoes can aid malaria elimination by retarding Plasmodium sporogonic development

Hoermann, Astrid, Habtewold, Tibebu, Selvaraj, Prashanth, Del Corsano, Giuseppe, Capriotti, Paolo, Inghilterra, Maria Grazia, Kebede, Temesgen M., Christophides, George K. and Windbichler, Nikolai,  Science Advances,  2022.
Gene drives hold promise for the genetic control of malaria vectors. The development of vector population modification strategies hinges on the availability of effector mechanisms impeding parasite development in transgenic mosquitoes. We augmented a midgut gene of the malaria ...
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Can mosquitoes be used for biological warfare?

Health Desk,  Health Desk,  2022.
Every year, mosquitoes kill more people than any other creature in the world. Because of 1) mosquitoes’ ability to spread deadly, communicable diseases and cover large distances quickly, and 2) the fact that different types of bugs have been weaponized for hundreds of years, it ...
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Release the Beast? Genetically modified mosquitos for diease control

G. Ferrante,  Palatinate,  2022.
The company Oxitec is an example how genetic technologies can be used in managing unwanted species in a sustainable way.Oxitec jumped to the headlines in March with permits being issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to allow the release of around 2.4 ...
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Larval mosquito management and risk to aquatic ecosystems: A comparative approach including current tactics and gene-drive Anopheles techniques

R. K. D. Peterson and M. G. Rolston,  Transgenic Research,  2022.
Genetic engineering of mosquitoes represents a promising tactic for reducing human suffering from malaria. Gene-drive techniques being developed that suppress or modify populations of Anopheles gambiae have the potential to be used with, or even possibly obviate, microbial and ...
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Gene Drives: A Potentially New Weapon Against Mosquitoes

M. Sherman,  Times Union Online,  2022.
Scientists have studied gene drives for more than 50 years, and to most of us this has been a well-kept secret. The development of a powerful genome editing tool in 2012, CRISPR/Cas9,1 led to recent breakthroughs in gene drive research that built on that half century’s worth ...
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Advances in Aedes Mosquito Vector Control Strategies Using CRISPR/Cas9

P. D. S. U. Wickramasinghe, G. N. Silva, Y. I. N. Silva Gunawardene and R. S. Dassanayake,  Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies,  2021.
Advancements in genetic engineering have resulted in the development of mosquitoes with impaired vector competence, thereby limiting acquisition and transmission of pathogens. The main dengue (DENV) vector, Aedes aegypti, is an invasive species that have spread unwittingly across ...
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Arthropods of Medical Importance: Need for Genetic and Other Innovative Vector Control Technologies, with Emphasis on Eco-biosocial and Environmental Considerations.

B. K. Tyagi,  Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies,  2021.
Among the world’s known vector groups, viz. arthropods, snails and rodents, the most important vectors originate from arthropods, the jointed legs. Arthropods are doubtlessly regarded as the most dominant creatures on the Earth due largely to their remarkable structural and ...
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Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies

B. K. Tyagi,  SpringerLink,  2021.
This book comprehensively covers the latest development in developing and deploying the genetically modified vectors, particularly Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes responsible for transmitting malaria parasites and dengue viruses, the most deadly and/or debilitating among all the ...
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How Israelis help the world fight mosquito-borne diseases

A. K. Leichman,  ISRAEL21c,  2021.
Israeli scientists and entrepreneurs understand the problems and risks and have been developing a series of ingenious remedies to this growing problem. Prof. Philippos Aris Papathanos, head of Hebrew University’s Insect Genetics Lab, was awarded a Bill & Melinda Gates ...
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Symbiotic Interactions Between Mosquitoes and Mosquito Viruses

M. Altinli, E. Schnettler and M. Sicard,  Front Cell Infect Microbiol,  11:694020. 2021.
Mosquitoes not only transmit human and veterinary pathogens called arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) but also harbor mosquito-associated insect-specific viruses (mosquito viruses) that cannot infect vertebrates. In the past, studies investigating mosquito viruses mainly ...
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Predicting the spread and persistence of genetically modified dominant sterile male mosquitoes

A. Ickowicz, S. D. Foster, G. R. Hosack and K. R. Hayes,  Parasites and Vectors,  14:480. 2021.
Reproductive containment provides an opportunity to implement a staged-release strategy for genetic control of malaria vectors, in particular allowing predictions about the spread and persistence of (self-limiting) sterile and male-biased strains to be compared to outcomes before ...
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The Complex Lives of Mosquitoes: The Key for Malaria Control

F. Okumu,  ISGlobal,  2021.
Mosquitoes spread diseases to millions of people around the world, yet they remain poorly understood by most. Studying their biology and behaviours can help us combat, and eventually eliminate, dangerous diseases such as malaria and dengue fever.There are nearly 3,500 species of ...
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New mosquito control tools are critical

L. Braack,  Open Access Government,  2021.
Globally, we are making slow headway in the fight against malaria, but there has been progress, nonetheless. Since 2000, 39 countries and territories have managed to rid themselves of malaria; the most recent is China. Existing tools can achieve local elimination, but the battle ...
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Transgenic expression of Nix converts genetic females into males and allows automated sex sorting in Aedes albopictus

C. Lutrat, R. P. Olmo, T. Baldet, J. Bouyer and E. Marois,  bioRxiv,  2021.07.28.454191. 2021.
Aedes albopictus is a major vector of arboviruses. Better understanding of its sex determination is crucial for developing mosquito control tools, especially genetic sexing strains. In Aedes aegypti, Nix is the primary gene responsible for masculinization and Nix-expressing ...
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Sex separation of Aedes spp. mosquitoes for sterile insect technique application: a review

B. M. Moran-Aceves, C. F. Marina, A. Dor, P. Liedo and J. Toledo,  Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata,  10. 2021.
Separation of the sexes is necessary for the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in mosquitoes due to the hematophagous habits and disease vector activity of the females. In this review we analyze the history, current status, and future perspectives for the ...
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Wolbachia as translational science: controlling mosquito-borne pathogens

E. P. Caragata, H. L. C. Dutra, P. H. F. Sucupira, A. G. A. Ferreira and L. A. Moreira,  Trends in Parasitology,  2021.
In this review we examine how exploiting the Wolbachia?mosquito relationship has become an increasingly popular strategy for controlling arbovirus transmission. Field deployments of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes have led to significant decreases in dengue virus incidence via high ...
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Combating mosquito-borne diseases using genetic control technologies

G.-H. Wang, S. Gamez, R. R. Raban, J. M. Marshall, L. Alphey, M. Li, J. L. Rasgon and O. S. Akbari,  Nature Communications,  12:4388. 2021.
Mosquito-borne diseases, such as dengue and malaria, pose significant global health burdens. Unfortunately, current control methods based on insecticides and environmental maintenance have fallen short of eliminating the disease burden. Scalable, deployable, genetic-based ...
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The (Losing) Battle Against Mosquitoes In Texas

J. Clayton,  Texas Public Radio,  2021.
Jerry Clayton: Mosquitoes are a fact of life in Texas, and the battle against the pesky biting insects is never ending. But there are some new weapons on the horizon. Zach Adleman is an associate professor of entomology at Texas A&M University. He joins us today. Thanks for being ...
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Sterilizing skeeters using CRISPR/Cas9

H. Tasoff,  Phy Org,  2021.
Mosquitoes are one of humanity's greatest nemeses, estimated to spread infections to nearly 700 million people per year and cause more than one million deaths. UC Santa Barbara Distinguished Professor Craig Montell has made a breakthrough in one technique for controlling ...
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Malaria-Resistant Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae); The Principle is Proven, But Will the Effectors Be Effective?

Z. N. Adelman and B. B. Kojin,  Journal of Medical Entomology,  58:1997-2005. 2021.
Over the last few decades, a substantial number of anti-malarial effector genes have been evaluated for their ability to block parasite infection in the mosquito vector. While many of these approaches have yielded significant effects on either parasite intensity or prevalence of ...
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Next gen insect control

E. Unglesbee,  Progressive Farmer,  2021.
Dubbed "self-limiting" insects by their makers, a UK-based biotechnology company called Oxitec, these insects are genetically modified (GM) with an inserted gene that permits only male offspring to survive. Once released into a pest community, the GM insects gradually lower the ...
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Evidence for natural hybridization and novel Wolbachia strain superinfections in the Anopheles gambiae complex from Guinea

C. L. Jeffries, C. Cansado-Utrilla, A. H. Beavogui, C. Stica, E. K. Lama, M. Kristan, S. R. Irish and T. Walker,  Royal Society Open Science,  8:18. 2021.
Wolbachia, a widespread bacterium which can influence mosquito-borne pathogen transmission, has recently been detected within Anopheles (An.) species that are malaria vectors in Sub-Saharan Africa. Although studies have reported Wolbachia strains in the An. gambiae complex, ...
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When More is Less: Mosquito Population Suppression Using Sterile, Incompatible and Genetically Modified Male Mosquitoes

S. L. Dobson,  Journal of Medical Entomology,  58:1980-1986. 2021.
The current review of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is motivated by new technologies and the recent renaissance of male release field trials, which is driving an evolution in mosquito control and regulation. Practitioners that are releasing male mosquitoes would do well to ...
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Sterile Insect Technique: Lessons From the Past

M. Q. Benedict,  Journal of Medical Entomology,  58:1974-1979. 2021.
When E.F. Knipling conceived of the release of sexually sterile insects to suppress wild populations, he laid down several fundamental qualities that characterized suitable target species—some of which mosquitoes generally violate—including high reproductive rates and large ...
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Mutant mosquitoes: GM insects ‘engineered’ in ‘new approach to pest control’

T. Fish,  EXPRESS,  2020.
This cutting-edge research provides the foundations for plans to prevent genetically modified organisms from reproducing with wild organisms.
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GeneConvene Global Collaborative Webinar Series

David O'Brochta and Hector Quemada,  GeneConvene Global Collaborative,  2020.
This is a series of public scientific and technical seminars by researchers actively involved in the research and development of engineered gene drive and related systems. Presentations will be aimed at other researchers and scientists, highlighting the latest investigations in ...
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Genome Editing 2020: Ethics and Human Rights in Germline Editing in Humans and Gene Drives in Mosquitoes

G. J. Annas,  American Journal of Law and Medicine,  46:143-165. 2020.
G. J. Annas (2020). American Journal of Law and Medicine. doi: 10.1177/0098858820933492. I begin with a discussion of so far disastrously unsuccessful attempts to regulate germline editing in humans, including a summary of the first application of germline genome editing in ...
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The need for new vector control approaches targeting outdoor biting anopheline malaria vector communities

S. Sougoufara, E. C. Ottih and F. Tripet,  Parasites & Vectors,  13:15. 2020.
Since the implementation of Roll Back Malaria, the widespread use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) is thought to have played a major part in the decrease in mortality and morbidity achieved in malaria-endemic regions. In the past decade, ...
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Modeling confinement and reversibility of threshold-dependent gene drive systems in spatially-explicit Aedes aegypti populations

H. M. Sánchez C, J. B. Bennett, S. L. Wu, G. Rašić, O. S. Akbari and J. M. Marshall,  BMC Biology,  18:50. 2020.
Here, we model hypothetical releases of two recently engineered threshold-dependent gene drive systems—reciprocal chromosomal translocations and a form of toxin-antidote-based underdominance known as UDMEL—to explore their ability to be confined and remediated.
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Guidance Framework for Testing the Sterile Insect Technique as a Vector Control Tool against Aedes-Borne Diseases

WHO & IAEA,  WHO & IAEA,  2020.
This document is intended to be a comprehensive guide for programme managers tasked with recommending a “go/no-go” decision on testing, full deployment and scale-up of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in regions of the world affected by diseases transmitted by Aedes ...
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Opinions of key stakeholders on alternative interventions for malaria control and elimination in Tanzania

M. F. Finda, N. Christofides, J. Lezaun, B. Tarimo, P. Chaki, A. H. Kelly, N. Kapologwe, P. Kazyoba, B. Emidi and F. O. Okumu,  Malaria Journal,  19:164. 2020.
Malaria control in Tanzania currently relies primarily on long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying, alongside effective case management and behaviour change communication. This study explored opinions of key stakeholders on the national progress towards malaria ...
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Can we kill the dreaded mosquito? Do we even want to?

Stacey McKenna,  Sierra,  2020.
As a major vector for disease, the mosquito has harmed more human beings than just about any other animal, and a changing climate is only boosting those numbers. As the range of disease-carrying species of mosquitoes expands, so does their ability to transmit the parasites and ...
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‘Gene Drive’ to curb malaria raises ethical questions as well

Gyanedra Nath Mitra,  The Pioneer,  2020.
A new technology ‘Gene Drive’ for mosquito control is currently confined to the laboratory since it raises an ethical question, if such a technology could in future be misused to the detriment of humanity.
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Should the humans be allowed to genetically modify insects?

Olivia Abbe,  NYK Daily,  2020.
Genetic engineering, also called Genetic modification or Genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism’s genes using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across ...
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Public health concerns over gene-drive mosquitoes: will future use of gene-drive snails for schistosomiasis control gain increased level of community acceptance?

D. O. Famakinde,  Pathogens and Global Health,  2020.
With the advent of CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-based gene drive, present genetic research in schistosomiasis vector control envisages the breeding and release of transgenic schistosome-resistant (TSR) snail vectors to curb the spread of the ...
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The Buzz About Genetically Modified Mosquitoes – a podcast

The Scientist Creative Services Team,  The Scientist,  podcast. 2020.
Mosquito-borne diseases afflict a large portion of the world. In this month’s episode, we consider genetic methods to eradicate diseases such as Zika fever, Dengue fever, and malaria. We spoke with Omar Akbari, professor of Cell and Developmental Biology at the University of ...
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Genetic Control of Mosquitoes

Alphey, L.,  Annual Review of Entomology,  59:205-224. 2019.
Genetics can potentially provide new, species-specific, environmentally friendly methods for mosquito control. Genetic control strategies aim either to suppress target populations or to introduce a harm-reducing novel trait. Different approaches differ considerably in their ...
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A Controversial Swarm Of Genetically Modified Mosquitoes In A Lab In Italy

NPR,  ,  2019.
An international team of scientists is conducting a controversial experiment in Italy. The experiment is designed to test genetically modified mosquitoes that researchers hope could provide a powerful new weapon to fight malaria, which remains one of the world's greatest ...
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Gene drive mosquitoes and the new era of medical colonialism

Mayet, MC, L. I.; Sirinathsingji, E,  GM Watch,  2019.
The highly contentious issue of gene drive technologies – a novel extreme form of genetic engineering designed to alter or even eradicate entire populations and species – was at the heart of the international negotiations at the biennial UN Biodiversity Conference held in ...
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Male competition and the evolution of mating and ire-history traits in experimental populations of Aedes aegypti

Qureshi, AA, A.; Hollis, B.; Ponlawat, A.; Cator, L. J.,  Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences,  286:20190591. 2019.
Aedes aegypti is an important disease vector and a major target of reproductive control efforts. We manipulated the opportunity for sexual selection in populations of Ae. aegypti by controlling the number of males competing for a single female. Populations exposed to higher ...
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Population genetics of Anopheles funestus, the African malaria vector, Kenya

Ogola, EOO, J. O.; Mwangangi, J. M.; Masiga, D. K.; Tchouassi, D. P.,  Parasites & Vectors,  12:15. 2019.
Anopheles funestus is among the major malaria vectors in Kenya and sub-Saharan Africa and has been recently implicated in persistent malaria transmission. However, its ecology and genetic diversity remain poorly understood in Kenya.MethodsUsing 16 microsatellite loci, we examined ...
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CRISPR in Parasitology: Not Exactly Cut and Dried!

Bryant, JMB, S.; Glover, L.; Hutchinson, S.; Rachidi, N.,  Trends in Parasitology,  35:409-422. 2019.
CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been developing rapidly in the field of parasitology, allowing for the dissection of molecular processes with unprecedented efficiency. Optimization and implementation of a new technology like CRISPR, especially in nonmodel organisms, requires ...
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Modelling the potential of genetic control of malaria mosquitoes at national scale

North, ARB, Austin; Godfray, H. Charles J.,  BMC Biology,  17:26. 2019.
The persistence of malaria in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa has motivated the development of novel tools to complement existing control programmes, including gene-drive technologies to modify mosquito vector populations. Here, we use a stochastic simulation model to explore ...
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A Question of Consent: Exterminator Mosquitoes in Burkina Faso

ETC group,  ,  2019.
Target Malaria’s planned release of GMO mosquitos is step toward release of gene drive mosquitoes, a high-risk technology aimed at the elimination of entire species. Hundreds of organizations have demanded a moratorium on the use of this technology outside of ...
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Large-cage assessment of a transgenic sex-ratio distortion strain on populations of an African malaria vector

Facchinelli, LN, A.; Collins, C.; Menichelli, M.; Persampieri, T.; Bucci, A.; Spaccapelo, R.; Crisanti, A.; Benedict, M.,  Parasites & Vectors,  12:70. 2019.
Novel transgenic mosquito control methods require progressively more realistic evaluation. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of a transgene that causes a male-bias sex ratio on Anopheles gambiae target populations in large insectary cages. Life history ...
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The Release of Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes in Burkina Faso: Bioeconomy of Science, Public Engagement and Trust in Medicine

Beisel, UG, J. K.,  African Studies Review,  62:164-173. 2019.
Malaria, which is transmitted by mosquitoes, continues to be responsible for a significant number of disease episodes and childhood deaths on the African continent. A variety of mosquito control strategies are currently inplace, but since case numbers are rising again, and drug ...
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Gene drive for population genetic control: non-functional resistance and parental effects

Beaghton, AKH, Andrew; Nolan, Tony; Crisanti, Andrea; Burt, Austin,  Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences,  286:20191586. 2019.
Gene drive is a natural process of biased inheritance that, in principle, could be used to control pest and vector populations. As with any form of pest control, attention should be paid to the possibility of resistance evolving. For nuclease-based gene drive aimed at suppressing ...
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Construction of an efficient genomic editing system with CRISPR/Cas9 in the vector mosquito Aedes albopictus

Liu, TY, W. Q.; Xie, Y. G.; Liu, P. W.; Xie, L. H.; Lin, F.; Li, C. Y.; Gu, J. B.; Wu, K.; Yan, G. Y.; Chen, X. G.,  Insect Science,  26:1045-1054. 2019.
Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus, also known as the Asian tiger mosquito, is a mosquito which originated in Asia. In recent years, it has become increasingly rampant throughout the world. This mosquito can transmit several arboviruses, including dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses, ...
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Alternative strategies for mosquito-borne arbovirus control

Achee, NLG, J. P.; Vatandoost, H.; Seixas, G.; Pinto, J.; Ching-Ng, L.; Martins, A. J.; Juntarajumnong, W.; Corbel, V.; Gouagna, C.; David, J. P.; Logan, J. G.; Orsborne, J.; Marois, E.; Devine, G. J.; Vontas, J.,  PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases,  13:e0006822. 2019.
Mosquito-borne virusessuch as Zika, chikungunya, dengue fever, and yellow fever, among othersare of global importance. Although vaccine development for prevention of mosquito-borne arbovirus infections has been a focus, mitigation strategies continue to rely on vector control. ...
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CRISPR Gene Drive (Complete guide 2019)

Every Cell A Universe,  ,  2018.
Crispr gene drive - malaria cure and a new way to look at conservation.
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Why is this African village letting mosquitoes in?

BBC,  BBC,  2018.
This is a BBC spot about the first release of genetically modified mosquitoes in Africa by the Target Malaria team. Very little information about gene drive but the context of this spot is notable.
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Gene drive used to turn all female mosquitos sterile

Timmer, J,  ARS Technica,  2018.
We've known for a long time that we can limit malaria infections by controlling the mosquitos that transmit them. But that knowledge hasn't translated into control efforts that have always been completely successful. Many of the approaches we've used to control mosquitos have ...
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Malaria mosquitoes wiped out in lab trials of gene drive testing

Kelland, K,  The Wire,  2018.
London: Scientists have succeeded in wiping out a population of caged mosquitoes in laboratory experiments using a type of genetic engineering known as a gene drive, which spread a modification blocking female reproduction.; ; The researchers, whose work was published on Monday ...
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Gene drives breakthrough needs urgent restraint

Steinbrecher, R,  GMWatch,  2018.
Gene drive researchers associated with Target Malaria and funded by US DARPA, the GATES Foundation and the UK BBSRC have just managed to crash a population of caged mosquitoes after 7-11 generations.(1); ; This is a first, and it has brought this technology beyond the proof of ...
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Here’s the Plan to End Malaria With Crispr-Edited Mosquitoes

Molteni, M,  Wired,  2018.
In 2003, scientists at London’s Imperial College hatched a somewhat out-there idea. They wanted to deal with the increasingly pesticide-resistant mosquitoes that were killing half a million people a year by spreading malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. What biologists Austin Burt ...
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For the first time, researchers will release genetically engineered mosquitoes in Africa

Ike Swetitz,  STAT,  2018.
The government of Burkina Faso granted scientists permission to release genetically engineered mosquitoes anytime this year or next, researchers announced Wednesday. It’s a key step in the broader efforts to use bioengineering to eliminate malaria in the region.
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Gene drive to reduce malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa

A. Burt, M. Coulibaly, A. Crisanti, A. Diabate and J. K. Kayondo,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S66-S80. 2018.
Gene drive is a natural process by which some genes are inherited at a greater-than-Mendelian rate and can spread through a population even if they cause harm to the organisms carrying them. Many different synthetic gene drive systems have been proposed to suppress the number of ...
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Population seasonality and release timing significantly affect the probability of establishment for small releases of gene drive mosquitoes

Nikolov, MO, A. L.; Beaghton, A. K.; Beaghton, P. J.; Wenger, E. A.; Burt, A.; Welkhoff, P. A.,  American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene,  99:367-367. 2018.
Highly efficient CRISPR/Cas9 gene-drive systems have recently been developed, targeting reproductive-capacity and malaria-competency loci of malaria transmitting vector species, such as An. gambiae. The resulting drive systems aim to either suppress the local wild-type population ...
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A CRISPR–Cas9 gene drive targeting doublesex causes complete population suppression in caged Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes

Kyrou, KH, Andrew M.; Galizi, Roberto; Kranjc, Nace; Burt, Austin; Beaghton, Andrea K.; Nolan, Tony; Crisanti, Andrea,  Nature Biotechnology,  36:1062–1066. 2018.
In the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, the gene doublesex (Agdsx) encodes two alternatively spliced transcripts, dsx-female (AgdsxF) and dsx-male (AgdsxM), that control differentiation of the two sexes. The female transcript, unlike the male, contains an exon (exon 5) ...
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Gene drive for Malaria control | Andrea Crisanti |

TEDx,  ,  2017.
Andrea discusses his team's laboratory work that has developed a revolutionary technology to spread genetic modifications from few laboratory mosquitoes to wild populations to eradicate malaria in the near future
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Driving out malaria

Nolan, TC, A.,  Scientist,  2017.
In recent years, researchers have sequenced the genomes of several Anopheles mosquito species, including those responsible for nearly all of the malaria transmission in Africa. With this information, they have begun to identify the genes underlying the insects’ ability to ...
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Using Gene Drive to Control Malaria

The Scientist,  The Scientist,  2016.
This article provides illustrations for how gene drive works, how gene drives spread, and how gene drive could be used to control malaria using population-wide gene knockout, skewed sex ratio, and population-wide gene knock-in techniques. Visit the article to view all ...
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Gene silencing and gene drive in dengue vector control

Paulraj, MGI, S.; Reegan, A. D.,  Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources,  7:193-200. 2016.
Vector-borne diseases are the most feared diseases throughout the world. Mosquitoes are the prime human disease vectors as they are responsible for nearly one million human deaths every year. So they are declared as the most dangerous insects to mankind. Aedes aegypti and Ae. ...
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Back to the future: the sterile insect technique against mosquito disease vectors

R. S. Lees, J. R. L. Gilles, J. Hendrichs, M. J. B. Vreysen and K. Bourtzis,  Current Opinion in Insect Science,  10:156-162. 2015.
With the global burden of mosquito-borne diseases increasing, and some conventional vector control tools losing effectiveness, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is a potential new tool in the arsenal. Equipment and protocols have been developed and validated for efficient ...
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Genetic Control of Mosquitoes.

Alphey, L.,  Annual Review of Entomology,  59:205-224. 2014.
Genetics can potentially provide new, species-specific, environmentally friendly methods for mosquito control. Genetic control strategies aim either to suppress target populations or to introduce a harm-reducing novel trait. Different approaches differ considerably in their ...
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A synthetic homing endonuclease-based gene drive system in the human malaria mosquito

Windbichler, NM, M.; Papathanos, P. A.; Thyme, S. B.; Li, H.; Ulge, U. Y.; Hovde, B. T.; Baker, D.; Monnat, R. J.; Burt, A.; Crisanti, A.,  Nature,  473:212-215. 2011.
Genetic methods of manipulating or eradicating disease vector populations have long been discussed as an attractive alternative to existing control measures because of their potential advantages in terms of effectiveness and species specificity(1-3). The development of ...
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Ethical, legal and social aspects of the approach in Sudan

B. B. El Sayed, C. A. Malcolm, A. Babiker, E. M. Malik, M. A. H. El Tayeb, N. S. Saeed, A. H. D. Nugud and B. G. J. Knols,  Malaria Journal,  8:S3. 2009.
The global malaria situation, especially in Africa, and the problems frequently encountered in chemical control of vectors such as insecticide resistance, emphasize the urgency of research, development and implementation of new vector control technologies that are applicable at ...
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Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control

T. B. Ageep, J. Cox, M. M. Hassan, B. G. J. Knols, M. Q. Benedict, C. A. Malcolm, A. Babiker and B. B. El Sayed,  Malaria Journal,  8:14. 2009.
Background: Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are ...
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Deployment of innovative genetic vector control strategies: progress on regulatory and biosafety aspects, capacity building and development of best-practice guidance

Beech, CV, S.S.; Quinlan, M.M.; Capurro, Margareth L.; Alphey, L.; Bayard, V.; Bouare, M.; McLeod, M.C.; Kittayapong, P.; Lavery, J.; Lim, L.H.; Marrelli, M.T.; Nagaraju, J.; Ombongi, K.; Othman, R.Y.; Pillai, V.; Ramsey, J.; Reuben, R.; Rose, R.I.; Tyagi, B.K.; Mumford, J.,  AsPac J. Mol. Biol. Biotechnol.,  17:75-85. 2009.
In the ongoing fight against vectors of human diseases, disease endemic countries (DECs) may soon benefit from innovative control strategies involving modified insect vectors. For instance, three promising methods (viz. RIDL® [Release of Insects with a Dominant Lethal], ...
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Researchers eliminate mosquito population through CRISPR gene editing technology

Goss, L,  Pharmafile,  2008.
Researchers at Imperial College London have been able to wipe out a population of mosquitoes through ‘gene drive’ technology. The study, published in the journal Nature Biotechnology saw a CRISPR edited gene being used to prevent female mosquitos from being born.; ; As such ...
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Towards a sterile insect technique field release of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in Sudan: Irradiation, transportation, and field cage experimentation

M. E. H. Helinski, M. M. Hassan, W. M. El-Motasim, C. A. Malcolm, B. G. J. Knols and B. El-Sayed,  Malaria Journal,  7:10. 2008.
Background: The work described in this article forms part of a study to suppress a population of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Northern State, Sudan, with the Sterile Insect Technique. No data have previously been collected on the irradiation and transportation of ...
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Targeting the X chromosome during spermatogenesis induces Y chromosome transmission ratio distortion and early dominant embryo lethality in Anopheles gambiae

Windbichler, NP, P. A.; Crisanti, A.,  PLOS Genetics,  4:1-9. 2008.
We have exploited the high selectivity of the homing endonuclease I-PpoI for the X-linked Anopheles gambiae 28S ribosomal genes to selectively target X chromosome carrying spermatozoa. Our data demonstrated that in heterozygous males, the expression of I-PpoI in the testes ...
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Homing endonuclease mediated gene targeting in Anopheles gambiae cells and embryos

Windbichler, NP, P. A.; Catteruccia, F.; Ranson, H.; Burt, A.; Crisanti, A.,  Nucleic Acids Research,  35:5922-5933. 2007.
Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) are selfish genetic elements that combine the capability to selectively disrupt specific gene sequences with the ability to rapidly spread from a few individuals to an entire population through homologous recombination repair events. Because of ...
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Meiotic drive by the Y-linked D gene in Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera : Culicidae) is associated with disruption of spermiogenesis, leading to premature senescence of spermatozoa

Owusu-Daaku, KOB, R. D.; Wood, R. J.,  Arthropod Structure & Development,  36:233-243. 2007.
Y chromosome meiotic drive in the mosquito Aedes aegypti, due to the gene D (Distorter) in coupling with M (male determination) [the MD haplotype], is associated with spermiogenic disruption, leading to senescence, at a rate Proportionate to male excess. Spermiogenesis was ...
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The Sterile Insect Technique: can established technology beat malaria?

M. E. H. Helinski, B. El-Sayed and B. G. J. Knols,  Entomologische Berichten,  66:13-20. 2006.
The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is the mass production, sterilisation and subsequent release of sterile insects into a target population in an area-wide integrated approach. The released sterile males mate with wild females; they thus no longer produce offspring and therefore ...
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Malaria Control with Genetically Manipulated Insect Vectors

L. Alphey, C. B. Beard, P. Billingsley, M. Coetzee, A. Crisanti, C. Curtis, P. Eggleston, C. Godfray, J. Hemingway, M. Jacobs-Lorena, A. A. James, F. C. Kafatos, L. G. Mukwaya, M. Paton, J. R. Powell, W. Schneider, T. W. Scott, B. Sina, R. Sinden, S. Sink,  Science,  298:119. 2002.
At a recent workshop, experts discussed the benefits, risks, and research priorities associated with using genetically manipulated insects in the control of vector-borne diseases.
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Variation in Y chromosome meiotic drive in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): a potential genetic approach to mosquito control

OwusuDaaku, KOW, R. J.; Butler, R. D.,  Bulletin of Entomological Research,  87:617-623. 1997.
Reciprocal crosses between strains of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) from different geographical areas have revealed an unexpectedly complex pattern of holandrically inherited male biased sex ratios in F2. The variation has been interpreted in terms of a web of X-Y interactions in F1, ...
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Combining the meiotic drive gene-D and the translocation T-1 in the mosquito, Aedes aegypti(L) .2: Recombination

Pearson, AMW, R. J.,  Genetica,  54:79-85. 1980.
Recombination on the sex-chromosome of Aedes aegypti has been studied in male genotypes incorporating the sex-linked translocation T1 and the meiotic drive gene D from three different strains (Trinidad, Bozo and Caracas).
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