Sex ratio distortion caused by meiotic drive in a mosquito Culex pipiens

Sweeny, TLB, A. R.,  Genetics,  88:427-446. 1978.

A genetic factor, distorter (d), has been discovered that upsets the normal sex ratio of 1 : 1 and results in a large excess of males in Culex pipiens. The effect can be explained by a sex-linked, recessive gene. Males homozygous for the gene (Md/md) produce few female offspring; the effect is not due to postzygotic mortality. During the first meiotic division in spermatogenesis, the shortest chromosome pair, which, according to JOST and LAVEN (1971), is associated with sex determination, can be seen to be abnormal. In a high proportion of spermatocysts, one of the dyads of the shortest bivalent fragments, and the pieces are distributed irregularly to the daughter cells. It is believed that the female-determining chromosomes fragment. This would give rise to an excess of male-determining sperm. The possible usefulness of this factor for control or for experimental purposes is discussed.