The need for new vector control approaches targeting outdoor biting anopheline malaria vector communities

S. Sougoufara, E. C. Ottih and F. Tripet,  Parasites & Vectors,  13:15. 2020.

Since the implementation of Roll Back Malaria, the widespread use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) is thought to have played a major part in the decrease in mortality and morbidity achieved in malaria-endemic regions. In the past decade, resistance to major classes of insecticides recommended for public health has spread across many malaria vector populations. Increasingly, malaria vectors are also showing changes in vector behaviour in response to current indoor chemical vector control interventions. Changes in the time of biting and proportion of indoor biting of major vectors, as well as changes in the species composition of mosquito communities threaten the progress made to control malaria transmission. Outdoor biting mosquito populations contribute to malaria transmission in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa and pose new challenges as they cannot be reliably monitored or controlled using conventional tools. Here, we review existing and novel approaches that may be used to target outdoor communities of malaria vectors. We conclude that scalable tools designed specifically for the control and monitoring of outdoor biting and resting malaria vectors with increasingly complex and dynamic responses to intensifying malaria control interventions are urgently needed. These are crucial for integrated vector management programmes designed to challenge current and future vector populations.


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