Pest Species

Anopheles arabiensis
Human malaria mosquito


Control Measure


  • 2004 SIT feasibility study supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Islamic Development Bank (IDB) initiated.
  • The field site of the project was situated in Northern State, Sudan.
  • A rearing facility in Khartoum State  produced 1 million sterile male An. arabiensis per day.
  • Genetic sexing methods were developed that included sex-linked insecticide resistance, ivermectin-based  and transgene-based sex separation of males and females.
  • Semi-field experiments were conducted.
  • Program was terminated in 2017 before the field release of irradiated males.

Learn More

The Sterile Insect Technique: can established technology beat malaria?

M. E. H. Helinski, B. El-Sayed and B. G. J. Knols,  Entomologische Berichten,  66:13-20. 2006.
The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is the mass production, sterilisation and subsequent release of sterile insects into a target population in an area-wide integrated approach. The released sterile males mate with wild females; they thus no longer produce offspring and therefore ...

Three Decades of Malaria Vector Control in Sudan: The Plausible Role of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

A. Elaagip and A. Adedapo,  Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies,  2021.
In Northern State, Sudan, a feasibility study for sterile insect technique (SIT) in an area-wide integrated pest management was established for the first time in an African country. The aim of the study was to see whether it is feasible, from a technical, an economical and a ...

Field site selection: getting it right first time around

C. A. Malcolm, B. El Sayed, A. Babiker, R. Girod, D. Fontenille, B. G. J. Knols, A. H. Nugud and M. Q. Benedict,  Malaria Journal,  8. 2009.
The selection of suitable field sites for integrated control of Anopheles mosquitoes using the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires consideration of the full gamut of factors facing most proposed control strategies, but four criteria identify an ideal site: 1) a single malaria ...

Towards a sterile insect technique field release of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in Sudan: Irradiation, transportation, and field cage experimentation

M. E. H. Helinski, M. M. Hassan, W. M. El-Motasim, C. A. Malcolm, B. G. J. Knols and B. El-Sayed,  Malaria Journal,  7:10. 2008.
Background: The work described in this article forms part of a study to suppress a population of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Northern State, Sudan, with the Sterile Insect Technique. No data have previously been collected on the irradiation and transportation of ...

Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control

T. B. Ageep, J. Cox, M. M. Hassan, B. G. J. Knols, M. Q. Benedict, C. A. Malcolm, A. Babiker and B. B. El Sayed,  Malaria Journal,  8:14. 2009.
Background: Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are ...

Ethical, legal and social aspects of the approach in Sudan

B. B. El Sayed, C. A. Malcolm, A. Babiker, E. M. Malik, M. A. H. El Tayeb, N. S. Saeed, A. H. D. Nugud and B. G. J. Knols,  Malaria Journal,  8:S3. 2009.
The global malaria situation, especially in Africa, and the problems frequently encountered in chemical control of vectors such as insecticide resistance, emphasize the urgency of research, development and implementation of new vector control technologies that are applicable at ...

Swarming and mating behavior of male Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in an area of the Sterile Insect Technique Project in Dongola, northern Sudan

M. M. Hassan, H. M. Zain, M. A. Basheer, H. E. F. Elhaj and B. B. El-Sayed,  Acta Tropica,  132:S64-S69. 2013.
The problems facing the conventional mosquito control methods including resistance to insecticides have led to the development of alternative methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to suppress populations of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan. ...

Radiation-induced sterility for pupal and adult stages of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

M. E. H. Helinski, A. G. Parker and B. G. J. Knols,  Malaria Journal,  5:10. 2006.
The optimal dose for male insects to be released in an SIT programme depends on their level of sterility and competitiveness. The use of semi-sterilizing doses to produce more competitive insects is discussed. The most convenient developmental stage for mosquito irradiation on a ...