Keywords: regulation

New molecular genetic techniques: regulatory and societal considerations

Nielsen, K. M.,  AREA-WIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: Development and Field Application,  2021.
A rapidly expanding toolbox of techniques available for genome editing provides the basis for a new continuum in types of modifications that can be introduced into a genome and blur the bimodal GMO vs. non-GMO (genetically modified organism) divide. Site-directed nucleases (SDN) ...
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Genome editing and its applications for insect pest control: Curse or blessing?

Hacker, I. , and Schetelig, M. F,  AREA-WIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: Development and Field Application,  2021.
Gene and genome editing are described as cutting-edge research tools with the potential to tackle urgent global challenges in the management of agricultural pests and human disease vectors such as mosquitoes. The field is defined by the chances and challenges to interlink the ...
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CRISPR-based gene drives for combatting malaria: Need for an early stage technology assessment.

Liebert, W.,  AREA-WIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: Development and Field Application,  2021.
The potential power of CRISPR-based gene drives makes it necessary to engage in science and technology assessment already in early stages of research and development. In order to argue for efforts to address this urgent need, gene drives to combat malaria-transmitting mosquitoes ...
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Containment Practices for Arthropods Modified with Engineered Transgenes Capable of Gene Drive Addendum 1 to the Arthropod Containment Guidelines, Version 3.2

American Committee of Medical Entomology,  Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases,  2021.
Responsible conduct of research is a cornerstone of rigorous scientific discovery. Institutional committees, independent advisory panels, and expert steering groups are among the frameworks in academia meant to provide guidance and assurances that research activities do not ...
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European Parliament adopts text on biodiversity, calls for no releases of gene drive organisms

Third World Network,  TWN Biosafety Briefing,  2021.
Gene drive technologies, such as GM mosquitoes for the control of vector-borne diseases, pose serious and novel threats for the environment and nature, including irreversible changes to food chains and ecosystems, and losses of biodiversity, on which the world’s poorest depend ...
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Gene drive and RNAi technologies: a bio-cultural review of next-generation tools for pest wasp management in New Zealand

S. Palmer, P. K. Dearden, O. R. Mercier, A. King-Hunt and P. J. Lester,  Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand,  1-18. 2021.
There is a global need for novel, next-generation technologies and techniques to manage pest species. We review work on potential step-changing technologies for large landscape (>1000 hectares) pest management of social Vespula wasps. We also review M?ori perspectives on these ...
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Weltnaturschutzunion sucht Position

Anonymous,  Informationsdienst Gentechnik,  2021.
Die Weltnaturschutzunion IUCN will in den nächsten drei Jahren eine breite interne Diskussion führen, ob Gentechnik und Gene Drives im Naturschutz eingesetzt werden sollen. Mit diesem Beschluss ist der Versuch gentechnikfreundlicher Organisationen, mit Artenschutz-Argumenten ...
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Calling the latest gene technologies ‘natural’ is a semantic distraction — they must still be regulated

J. A. Heinemann, D. J. Paull, S. Walker and B. Kurenbach,  The Conversation,  2021.
Legislators around the world are being asked to reconsider how to regulate the latest developments in gene technology, genome editing and gene silencing. Both the European Court of Justice and the New Zealand High Court have ruled that genome editing techniques should remain ...
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New report demands moratorium on gene drives

GM Watch,  GM Watch,  2021.
To help the public understand what's at stake, the Germany-based NGO Save Our Seeds (SOS) has published a report, "Gene Drives: The New Dimension of Genetic Engineering", which can be downloaded as a pdf document. The report provides a scientifically founded overview of how ...
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Gene Drive Organisms: A new dimension of genetic engineering

V. Henn and M. Imken,  Save Our Seeds,  2021.
Enabled by new genetic engineering techniques such as CRISPR/Cas9, so-called gene drives have been developed in recent years that enable humans to spread new genes throughout the genome of wild animal populations. Gene drives force the inheritance of newly introduced genes to be ...
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To exterminate, or not to: Scientists debate tweaking wild genomes

French Press Agency,  Daily Sabah,  2021.
veryone remembers Jeff Goldblum's famous speech in 1993 classic Jurassic Park: “Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether they could, they didn't stop to think if they should.” Well, these scientists are debating whether one should. In the movie, reconstructing and ...
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The viral era

B. Giese,  EMBO reports,  22:e53229. 2021.
New biotechnologies such as gene drives and engineered viruses herald a viral era that would give humans exceptional power over any organism at the level of the genotype. In synthetic biology, orthogonality—in the sense of lack of interference—between different systems or ...
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The international governance of gene drive organisms

F. Rabitz,  Environmental Politics,  2021.
Gene Drive Organisms (GDOs) are a proposed biotechnological intervention that might generate significant benefits for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity while also raising critical biosafety issues. Despite their inevitable transboundary effects, their ...
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2021 WHO guidelines on genetically modified mosquitoes

M. Makoni,  The Lancet Microbe,  2:e353. 2021.
On May 19, 2021, WHO updated its guidelines for research and development on genetically modified mosquitoes, which define the standards for decision-making about how and when testing should proceed and describe best practices to ensure that research done in a public health ...
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Oxitec and MosquitoMate in the United States: lessons for the future of gene drive mosquito control

C. E. Schairer, J. Najera, A. A. James, O. S. Akbari and C. S. Bloss,  Pathogens and Global Health,  2021.
ABSTRACTIn response to growing concerns regarding mosquito-borne diseases, scientists are developing novel systems of vector control. Early examples include Oxitec?s OX513A genetically-engineered mosquito and MosquitoMate?s Wolbachia-infected mosquito, and systems using ...
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Gene Drives – Engineering the Wild

L. Sharratt,  Sentinel,  2021.
So far, genetically engineered organisms have been mostly limited to agricultural use, with partial success. Around the world, a few major crops (mostly corn, soy, and cotton) are genetically engineered, predominantly for herbicide tolerance and insect resistance. However, the ...
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Africa Turning to Gene Drive Technology for Malaria Elimination

M. Hearty,  Science Africa,  2021.
With Africa accounting for nine out of ten malaria cases globally, the continent is turning to gene drive technology to control the disease. This is according to a decision made by African leaders at the 29th Summit of Heads of States and Governments of the African Union held in ...
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West African countries working together to develop framework to regulate genetically engineered mosquitos: Target Malaria

Anonymous,  Global News,  2021.
Abdoulaye Diabaté, principal investigator for Target Malaria, says West African countries like Burkina Faso, Mali and Benin are working with the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) to develop a pan-West African framework to regulate gene drive mosquitos.
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Potential use of gene drive modified insects against disease vectors, agricultural pests and invasive species poses new challenges for risk assessment

Y. Devos, J. D. Mumford, M. B. Bonsall, A. M. Camargo, L. G. Firbank, D. C. M. Glandorf, F. Nogué, K. Paraskevopoulos and E. A. Wimmer,  Critical Reviews in Biotechnology,  2021.
Potential future application of engineered gene drives (GDs), which bias their own inheritance and can spread genetic modifications in wild target populations, has sparked both enthusiasm and concern. Engineered GDs in insects could potentially be used to address long-standing ...
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‘Nigeria has capacity for safe application of modern biotechnology’

M. Adewale,  The Guardian,  2021.
Director-general of the National Biosafety Management Agency (NBMA), Dr. Rufus Ebegba, has declared that Nigeria has the capacity to deploy safe biotechnology products for agricultural development and environmental safety. Ebegba, who gave the assurance at the opening of a ...
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European Parliament calls for ban on gene drive technology

Save Our Seeds,  Save Our Seeds,  2021.
The European Parliament yesterday confirmedi it‘s precautionary stance towards the use of a new genetic engineering technology called gene drive. In its report on the EU’s Biodiversity Strategy for 2030, adopted at the European Parliament’s plenary on 08.06.2021, ...
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Living With the Limits of Our New Clerisy’s Knowledge

R. Fernandez,  PJ Media,  2021.
We are living in a strange time when reason has fallen short of human expectations and there is, once again, pressure to place our trust in faith. Leighton Woodhouse hit the nail on the head when he argued that we have appointed a New Clerisy to rule over us, not because they are ...
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African Experts Welcome WHO Guidance on Ethics, Standards, and Governance of Genetically Modified Mosquito Research

E. Nakkazi,  Health Policy Watch,  2021.
Researchers engaged in mosquito gene drive technologies are optimistic that new World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on best research practices will ensure that their work is safe and ethical. Such guidance also helps research results advance from laboratories to be used in ...
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What is wrong in extinguishing a species? Charting the Ethical Challenges of using Gene-Drive Technologies to eradicate A. gambiae vector populations

M. Annoni and T. Pievani,  Biolaw Journal-Rivista Di Biodiritto,  2021.
This article analyses three ethical arguments against the use of gene-drive technologies to control for, and possibly extinguish, a particular species of vector mosquitoes (Anopheles gambiae) causing the malaria infection. We conclude that none of these arguments is truly ...
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WHO releases new guidance for deployment of genetically modified mosquitoes

E. Henderson,  News Medical Life Sciences,  2021.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has released new guidance for the deployment of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes to combat vector-borne diseases like malaria and dengue. GM mosquitoes may carry a gene that kills female progeny and the technology can be used against the ...
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Q&A: WHO updates guidance on testing genetically modified mosquitoes

E. N. Dreisbach,  Healio,  2021.
Researchers have been exploring the use of genetically modified mosquitos as a potential control method for vector-borne diseases. Just last month, Oxitec began releasing its genetically modified (GM), self-limiting male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the Florida Keys in the hope of ...
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Why the EU should back research into gene drive – even if Europe never uses it

R. Müller,  The Brussels Times,  2021.
As the EU’s Biodiversity Strategy reaches the European Parliament, it has reopened a worrying debate about research into gene drive technology, a tool which could pave the way for biasing the inheritance of desired genetic traits through targeted species. Advances in this kind ...
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Genetically modified mosquitoes; WHO issues new guidance for research

DTE Staff,  Down To Earth,  2021.
Genetically-modified mosquitoes or GMMs have been used across the world to control mosquitoes. GMMs have been able to bring down the population of the Aedes aegypti by 90 per cent in countries like Brazil, the Cayman Islands, Panama and Malaysia. But there have never been any ...
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WHO issues new guidance for research on genetically modified mosquitoes to fight malaria and other vector-borne diseases

WHO,  reliefweb,  2021.
New guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) sets essential standards to inform future research and development on genetically modified mosquitoes, particularly in addressing issues relating to ethics, safety, affordability and effectiveness. Malaria and other ...
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Guidance framework for testing of genetically modified mosquitoes, second edition

WHO,  WHO-TDR,  2021.
For more than 2 decades, scientists have been working to harness the promise of molecular biology to develop genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) for use as public health tools to prevent the transmission of vector-borne diseases. Responding to a need for additional standards ...
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The legal regulation of gene drive technologies

C. Elves,  Univeristy of Oxford,  2021.
Gene drive technologies purport to provide a panacea and yet in doing so present unprecedented risks that threaten to change, potentially irreversibly, the way in which we live in the world. Gene drive technologies raise questions about what ends societies ought to seek for their ...
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Driving genetic destruction

Anonymous,  Alliance for Natural Health,  2021.
Genetically-engineered (GE) mosquitoes have been released in a number of countries, including the US. We’ve known for some time that these experiments have not gone to plan, but a new paper provides a better understanding of how they’ve went awry, and provides a harrowing ...
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Selection of Sites for Field Trials of Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes with Gene Drive

G. C. Lanzaro, M. Campos, M. Crepeau, A. Cornel, A. Estrada, H. Gripkey, Z. Haddad, A. Kormos, S. Palomares and W. Sharpee,  bioRxiv,  2021.04.28.441877. 2021.
Novel malaria control strategies using genetically engineered mosquitoes (GEMs) are on the horizon. Population modification is one approach wherein mosquitoes are engineered with genes rendering them refractory to the malaria parasite coupled with a low-threshold, Cas9-based gene ...
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Fighting mosquitoes with mosquitoes

W. Feng,  The Daily Targum,  2021.
When you think about the animal that has killed the greatest number of humans in the world, you generally tend to think of large predators. Is it perhaps the great white shark or maybe the cute but deadly hippopotamus? While these animals are certainly deadly, the number of ...
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CRISPR-Cas and Its Wide-Ranging Applications: From Human Genome Editing to Environmental Implications, Technical Limitations, Hazards and Bioethical Issues

R. Piergentili, A. Del Rio, F. Signore, F. U. Ronchi, E. Marinelli and S. Zaami,  Cells,  10:24. 2021.
The CRISPR-Cas system is a powerful tool for in vivo editing the genome of most organisms, including man. During the years this technique has been applied in several fields, such as agriculture for crop upgrade and breeding including the creation of allergy-free foods, for ...
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US Gene Drive Governance: A Special Feature in Health Security

L. Warmbrod, A. Kobokovich, R. West, G. K. Gronvall and M. Montague,  Health Security,  19:131-132. 2021.
The novel potential of gene drives and related genetic pest control measures highlights a gap in the oversight of products using such technologies in the United States. The US Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology, as applied by US Environmental Protection Agency, ...
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Systematic identification of plausible pathways to potential harm via problem formulation for investigational releases of a population suppression gene drive to control the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in West Africa

J. B. Connolly, J. D. Mumford, S. Fuchs, G. Turner, C. Beech, A. R. North and A. Burt,  Malaria Journal,  20:170. 2021.
Population suppression gene drive has been proposed as a strategy for malaria vector control. A CRISPR-Cas9-based transgene homing at the doublesex locus (dsxFCRISPRh) has recently been shown to increase rapidly in frequency in, and suppress, caged laboratory populations of the ...
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Quantifying the risk of vector-borne disease transmission attributable to genetically modified vectors

G. R. Hosack, A. Ickowicz and K. R. Hayes,  Royal Society Open Science,  8:201525. 2021.
The relative risk of disease transmission caused by the potential release of transgenic vectors, such as through sterile insect technique or gene drive systems, is assessed with comparison with wild-type vectors. The probabilistic risk framework is demonstrated with an assessment ...
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Differentiated impacts of human interventions on nature: Scaling the conversation on regulation of gene technologies

J. A. Heinemann, D. J. Paull, S. Walker and B. Kurenbach,  Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene,  9. 2021.
Biotechnology describes a range of human activities in medicine, agriculture, and environmental management. One biotechnology in particular, gene technology, continues to evolve both in capacity and potential to benefit and harm society. The purpose of this article is to offer a ...
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The science & ethics of gene drive technology from a conservation & development perspective

Renew Europe,  Renew Europe,  2021.
This hearing intends to examine gene-drive technology and its possible impacts, including unintended ones and reveal the complexity of an unknown technology with inherent uncertainties. Scientists from different backgrounds in the field of gene-drive research will present most ...
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Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment of Gene Drives

Hector Quemada and David O'Brochta,  ,  2021.
Unlike non-gene drive organisms, which can be limited in time and space and therefore provide data in small scale tests that can be relevant to large scale releases, the potential for large-scale spread from a limited release, even in well-isolated trials, means that reliance on ...
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GeneConvene Webinar Series on: Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment of Gene Drives

Hector Quemada and David O'Brochta,  ,  2021.
Unlike non-gene drive organisms, which can be limited in time and space and therefore provide data in small scale tests that can be relevant to large scale releases, the potential for large-scale spread from a limited release, even in well-isolated trials, means that reliance on ...
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Emergent challenges for CRISPR: biosafety, biosecurity, patenting, and regulatory issues

Braddick, D. , and Ramarohetra, R. F.,  Genome Engineering Via Crispr-Cas9 System,  2021.
The recent advancements of CRISPR-Cas technologies have transformed this simple and efficient gene editing technique into an extraordinarily powerful tool. The most anticipated applications could create novel therapeutics against mankind's most serious afflictions and help ...
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Les Européens très critiques vis-à-vis du forçage génétique

L. Duboua-Lorsch,  EURACTIV,  2021.
Cette technique, qui vise à éradiquer ou modifier certaines espèces dites nuisibles, sera au cœur des négociations cette année, alors que se profile la COP15 sur la biodiversité. maginez un monde débarrassé d’insectes porteurs de maladies, de parasites agricoles, ...
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GENE DRIVE ACCEPTANCE SURVEY

YouGov,  Pollinis,  2021.
This representative survey was conducted by the international market research institute YouGov and polled 8.826 citizens from 8 EU countries in December 2020. It was commissioned by WeMove Europe, Save Our Seeds (Germany), Skiftet (Sweden), France Nature Environnement (FNE) ...
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Demystifying the Risk Assessment Process for Laboratory-Based Experiments Utilizing Invasive Genetic Elements: It Is More Than Gene Drive

Z. N. Adelman,  Applied Biosafety,  2021.
Advances in recombinant DNA approaches have resulted in the development of transgene architectures that severely bias their own inheritance, a process commonly referred to as ?gene drive.? The rapid pace of development, combined with the complexity of many gene drive approaches, ...
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Next-generation tools to control biting midge populations and reduce pathogen transmission

P. Shults, L. W. Cohnstaedt, Z. N. Adelman and C. Brelsfoard,  Parasites and Vectors,  14:31. 2021.