Keywords: regulation

Next-generation tools to control biting midge populations and reduce pathogen transmission

P. Shults, L. W. Cohnstaedt, Z. N. Adelman and C. Brelsfoard,  Parasites and Vectors,  14:31. 2021.
Biting midges of the genus Culicoides transmit disease-causing agents resulting in a significant economic impact on livestock industries in many parts of the world. Localized control efforts, such as removal of larval habitat or pesticide application, can be logistically ...
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Conservation pest control with new technologies: public perceptions

E. A. MacDonald, M. B. Neff, E. Edwards, F. Medvecky and J. Balanovic,  Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand,  2021.
We conducted eleven focus groups in New Zealand to explore three questions about novel technologies (gene drive and two others for comparison of pest control tools): (1) what are the risks/benefits? (2) how do they compare to current methods? and (3) who should be represented on ...
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New GE unintentionally leaves traces in cells

C. Then,  Testbiotech,  2020.
A new scientific publication shows that CRISPR/Cas gene scissor applications in animals unintentionally leave traces. The findings are not related to unintended changes in the DNA, which have often been described, but to gene regulation, i.e. epigenetics. The effects are ...
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Core commitments for field trials of gene drive organisms

K. C. Long, L. Alphey, G. J. Annas, C. S. Bloss, K. J. Campbell, J. Champer, C.-H. Chen, A. Choudhary, G. M. Church, J. P. Collins, K. L. Cooper, J. A. Delborne, O. R. Edwards, C. I. Emerson, K. Esvelt, S. W. Evans, R. M. Friedman, V. M. Gantz, F. Gould,,  Science,  370:1417-1419. 2020.
While field trials of gene drive organisms (GDOs) ultimately will depend on public policy decisions, those engaged in GDO work can play critical roles in support of these decisions by generating evidence and developing evaluation strategies in fair and effective partnerships with ...
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Scientists paved the way for field trials of gene-driven organisms

K. Winslet,  FLORIDA News Times,  2020.
The recent rise of gene drive research, accelerated by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology, has brought about a wave of transformation throughout science.Developed with selected traits that have been genetically engineered to spread throughout the population, Gene Drive ...
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Technical Support to Burkina Faso on Gene Drive Stage 2 Dossier Review

AUDA-NEPAD,  AUDA-NEPAD,  2020.
AUDA-NEPAD in partnership with the National Biosafety Agency (ANB) in Burkina Faso organised a training workshop to support to the National Biosafety Committee (NBC) on stage 2 dossier review, on December 3 – 5, 2020, in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. In addition to the NBC ...
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Gene Drive-Modified Organisms: Developing Practical Risk Assessment Guidance

Y. Devos, M. B. Bonsall, L. G. Firbank, J. Mumford, F. Nogué and E. A. Wimmer,  Trends in Biotechnology,  2020.
Risk assessors, risk managers, developers, potential applicants, and other stakeholders at many levels discuss the need for new or further risk assessment guidance for deliberate environmental releases of gene drive-modified organisms. However, preparing useful and practical ...
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Scientists Set a Path for Field Trials of Gene Drive Organisms

M. Aguilera,  UC San Diego News Center,  2020.
The modern rise of gene drive research, accelerated by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology, has led to transformational waves rippling across science. Gene drive organisms (GDOs), developed with select traits that are genetically engineered to spread through a population, have ...
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Burkina Faso Stakeholders consultations on Gene Drive Technology for integrated vector management towards malaria elimination

AUDA-NEPAD,  AUDA-NEPAD,  2020.
Under its flagship Integrated Vector Management (IVM) Programme, African Union Development Agency (AUDA-NEPAD) in partnership with the National biosafety agency (ANB) of Burkina Faso organized an information sharing workshop on the applications of "Gene Drive" technology and ...
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A Gene Drive Could Wipe Out Mosquitoes. But What If We Want To Turn It Off?

A. Winkler,  freethink,  2020.
Gene drives are powerful tools: they allow scientists to hack how animals pass down genes to their offspring. They could allow us to wipe out malaria-carrying mosquitoes, preserve endangered species, or fight off crop-eating pests. But once it's out in the wild, a gene drive ...
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Evaluating Gene Drive Approaches for Public Benefit

M. R. Santos,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
Gene drive approaches—those which bias inheritance of a genetic element in a population of sexually reproducing organisms—have the potential to provide important public benefits. The spread of selected genetic elements in wild populations of organisms may help address certain ...
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Engineered Gene Drives and their Value in the Control of Vector-Borne Diseases, Weeds, Pests, and Invasive Species

K. Hefferon and R. Herring,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
Genetic engineering has created potential for moving medical and agricultural research and application frontiers forward in unprecedented ways. Despite its accepted use as a powerful tool in medical research, genetic modification and genome editing technologies remain ...
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Engineered Gene Drives: Ecological, Environmental, and Societal Concerns

J. Kuzma,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
This chapter overviews the types, purposes, and potential impacts of gene drive organisms (GDOs) and discusses challenges with foreseeing and assessing these impacts prior to their environmental release. It concludes with a few examples of risk analysis methods and governance ...
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Genetically Engineered Fish: Potential Impacts on Aquaculture, Biodiversity, and the Environment

R. A. Dunham and B. Su,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
Studies on transgenic fish for the aquaculture industry have focused on improving growth rates, enhancing disease resistance, altering body composition, acting as biological factories for medical proteins, and even altering temperature tolerance and coloration. The future impact ...
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GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes

Chaurasia, Anurag , Hawksworth, David L., Pessoa de Miranda, Manoela.,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
This book covers a broad spectrum of topics related to GMOs and allied new gene-based technologies, biodiversity, and ecosystem processes, bringing together the contributions of researchers and regulators from around the world. The aim is to offer a clear view of the benefits and ...
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FNIH Panel on Gene Drive Regulation Emphasizes Need for Local Community Engagement

C. Rizk,  GenomeWeb,  2020.
Genetically modified organisms are another topic of deep debate, with some activists agitating for and getting governments to implement deep restrictions on modified crops. More recently, GMO crops have started to regain public favor, particularly in countries where boosting the ...
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Further guidance required for assessment of gene drive technology, says EFSA

Euractiv,  The World News Monitor,  2020.
Existing guidelines are adequate for evaluating risks associated with gene-drive modified insects, but further guidance is needed for some areas, most notably for environmental risk assessments. The evaluation was requested to explore the issue ahead of the consideration of any ...
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Mutagenic chain reaction cannot be sufficiently controlled

Christoph Then,  Testbiotech,  2020.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has published the results of its public consultation on the risks of so-called gene drive organisms. Testbiotech accuses the authority of disguising the real dimension of the risks. Gene drives are designed to spread artificial genetic ...
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Outcome of a public consultation on the draft adequacy and sufficiency evaluation of existing EFSA guidelines for the molecular characterisation, environmental risk assessment and post-market environmental monitoring of genetically modified insects containing engineered gene drives

European Food Safety Authority, Y. Devos, M. B. Bonsall, F. Nogué, K. Paraskevopoulos, E. A. Wimmer and L. G. Firbank,  EFSA Supporting Publications,  17:1939E. 2020.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) carried out an online public consultation to receive input from interested parties/persons on the draftscientific opinion on the adequacy and sufficiencyevaluation of existing guidelines for the molecular characterisation (MC), ...
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Gene drives, species, and compassion for individuals in conservation biology

Y. Rohwer,  Ethics, Policy and Environment,  2020.
In this paper I argue that these compassionate conservationists have a moral obligation to support the investigation and development of genetic modification technologies because of their potential to minimize suffering and eliminate killing in conservation. Furthermore, I will ...
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Novel and Exceptional Technology and Research Advisory Committee – NExTRAC -NIH

NIH Office of Science Policy,  National Institutes of Health (NIH),  2020.
NExTRAC provides advice to the Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on matters related to the conduct and oversight of research involving emerging technologies in biomedical science. NExTRAC also makes recommendations on research involving the use of, and ...
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When Extinction is Warranted: Invasive Species, Suppression-Drives, and the Worst-Case Scenario

A. C. Thresher,  Ethics, Policy and Environment,  2020.
The focus of this paper is on one such risk ? the danger of a suppression-drive escaping containment and wiping out the target species globally. Here, I argue that in most cases this risk is significant enough to warrant holding off on the technology. In some cases, however, we ...
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Brave New Planet: Reshaping Nature Through Gene Drives

E. Lander,  Brave New Planet,  2020.
A new technology, called gene drives, has the power to spread any genetic instructions you wish across an entire animal or plant species in the wild. It might let us restore ecosystems ravaged by invasive species, or help species adapt to climate change. And, it might save ...
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The ethical way to alter organisms

K. Esvelt,  Boston Globe,  2020.
As my colleagues and I first described in 2014, we can use CRISPR genome editing to duplicate the most powerful form of “gene drive,” a ubiquitous natural phenomenon that happens when a genetic change is inherited more frequently than usual. Encode the CRISPR machinery next ...
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Gene Drives: A Controversial Tool to Fight Malaria

H. Albert,  LABIOTECH.eu,  2020.
The possibility of creating gene drives was introduced into the scientific community in 2003 by Austin Burt, a professor at Imperial College London. Burt was studying ‘selfish genes’ that can copy themselves into a specific target DNA sequence. He suggested that these genes, ...
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Advances in genetic engineering test democracy’s capacity for good decision-making

N. Kofler and R. Taitingfong,  Boston Globe,  2020.
New advances in genetic engineering and their application for environmental conservation and public health are further testing our democracy’s capacity for good decision-making. With minimal public input, the Environmental Protection Agency recently approved the release of ...
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Inauguration and first meeting of WA-IVM Technical Working Groups

AUDA-NEPAD,  AUDA-NEPAD News,  2020.
African Union Development Agency – NEPAD (AUDA-NEPAD) in collaboration with the West Africa Health Organization (WAHO), the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Environment in Cote d’Ivoire, organized the inaugural meeting of WA-IVM Technical Working Groups (TWGs) from 24 ...
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Engineered Gene Drives: Policy and Regulatory Considerations Webinar Series by The GeneConvene Global Collaborative October-December 2020

Hector Quemada and David O'Brochta,  GeneConvene Global Collaborative,  2020.
In this series of webinars the regulatory and policy challenges of moving new innovative genetic biocontrol products such as gene drive technologies to the field will be featured. Each seminar will be ~60 minutes in length followed by questions and answers.
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WHO Refers to GM Mosquitoes as Beneficial Technology

ISAAA,  Crop Biotech Update,  2020.
The World Health Organization (WHO) released its official statement to clarify its stance on the evaluation and use of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes and its use to control vector-borne diseases (VBD). WHO says it supports the investigation of all potentially beneficial ...
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Position of ARRIGE Scientific Committee on Gene Drive

ARRIGE Scientific Committee on Gene Drive,  ARRIGE Newsletter,  2020.
We are facing a change of paradigm that must lead us to be responsible for altered inheritance and the hybridization between artefacts, considered as natural or artificial, at the very moment when this division itself is blurred by the engineering capacity to act on mutations, ...
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Gene Drives – Mit gentechnischer Ausrottung Menschen und Natur schützen?

Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung,  Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung,  2020.
Am Beispiel von Gene Drives zur Malariabekämpfung soll in diesem Online-Seminar aufgezeigt werden, wie die Technologie funktioniert, wer sie entwickelt, finanziert und ihre Anwendung vorantreibt, welche Risiken sie birgt, wie in betroffenen Ländern darüber diskutiert und warum ...
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WHO Releases a Position Statement on Genetically Modified Mosquitoes for the Control of Vector-Borne Diseases

E. R. Fletcher,  Health Policy Watch,  2020.
WHO announced their support for the continued investigation into genetically modified mosquitoes as an alternative to existing interventions to reduce or prevent vector-borne diseases.
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Ethics and vector-borne diseases

WHO,  WHO Guidance,  2020.
The guidance was developed by an international group of experts in vector control, infectious disease ethics, maternal and child health, ecology and climate change, research and vaccine development, and public health communication. It examines a broad range of ethical ...
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ESA Position Statement on the Importance of Continued Innovation in Gene Drive Technology

Entomological Society of America,  Annals of the Entomological Society of America,  2020.
The risks and benefits of GDTs should be considered with the risks and benefits of continuing current pest control interventions, which may be comparatively less effective or pose exposure risks to human health and the environment.
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GeneConvene Global Collaborative Webinar Series Oct-Dec 2020

Hector Quemada and David O'Brochta,  GeneConvene Global Collaborative,  2020.
This is series of webinars the regulatory and policy challenges of moving new innovative genetic biocontrol products such as gene drive technologies to the field will be featured.
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Evaluation of genetically modified mosquitoes for the control of vector-borne diseases

Global Malaria Programme,  WHO - Position Statement,  2020.
In the spirit of fostering innovation, WHO takes the position that all potentially beneficial new technologies, including GMMs, should be investigated to determine whether they could be useful in the continued fight against diseases of public health concern. Such research should ...
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Embracing Dynamic Models for Gene Drive Management

A. J. Golnar, E. Ruell, A. L. Lloyd and K. M. Pepin,  Trends in Biotechnology,  2020.
We describe how quantitative tools can reduce risk uncertainty, streamline empirical research, guide risk management, and promote cross-sector collaboration throughout the process of gene drive technology development and implementation.
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Do Africans Want Genetically Modified Mosquitoes?

U. Effiong,  The Pursuit,  2020.
The recent publication by fellow Nigerian scientists—Patricia Okorie and colleagues—originally drew my attention to the issue of GMMs.
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Gene Drive: Modern Miracle or Environmental Disaster

K. Brooks,  Journal of Law, Technology and Policy,  2020.
This Note will show how gene drive technology fits imperfectly into the old regulatory framework through case studies. The Analysis will also describe how the different regulatory agencies handle similar gene drive-like organisms inconsistently, and the inherent danger of this ...
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Gene drives: Navigating perils of engineered eradication, with Christoph Then.

IEAM Podcast,  Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management,  2020.
Imagine a world without natural enemies like parasites or deadly pathogens. Where crops grow unfettered by rodent and insect pests. Advances in genetic engineering now hold the possibility to alter genomes at the population level, but is it too good to be true? A critical review ...
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Global citizen deliberation on genome editing

J. S. Dryzek, D. Nicol, S. Niemeyer, S. Pemberton, N. Curato, A. Bächtiger, P. Batterham, B. Bedsted, S. Burall, M. Burgess, G. Burgio, Y. Castelfranchi, H. Chneiweiss, G. Church, M. Crossley, J. de Vries, M. Farooque, M. Hammond, B. He, R. Mendonça, J.,  Science,  369:1435. 2020.
Here we show how, as the global governance vacuum is filled, deliberation by a global citizens' assembly should play a role, for legitimate and effective governance.
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Risks of releasing gene drives mosquitoes – a possible future scenario

Testbiotech,  Testbiotech,  2020.
Genetically engineering the genome of an organism with gene drive means that it will be replicated in every following generation. This allows the altered gene to spread rapidly throughout natural populations, which may be decimated or even eradicated. The video contains both ...
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Why the UK could end up deploying risky gene drives while ignoring natural biological control

J. Mathews,  GM Watch,  2020.
First they cloned Dolly the sheep. Now they’re targeting grey squirrels
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Scientists Evaluate Environmental Impacts of Gene Drive Organisms

Staff,  American Laboratory,  2020.
Researcher Marion Dolezel, from the Environment Agency Austria, and a team of international scientists published in the open-access journal BioRisk, discuss the potential risks and impacts on the environment.
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Responsible innovation in biotechnology: Stakeholder attitudes and implications for research policy

P. Roberts, J. Herkert and J. Kuzma,  Elementa,  2020.
Using a mixed methods approach, we analyzed the attitudes of different biotechnology stakeholders, particularly those working in areas related to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture and the environment, towards the principles and practices of RI. Homogenous focus ...
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Governing New Biotechnologies for Biodiversity Conservation: Gene Drives, International Law, and Emerging Politics

J. L. Reynolds,  Global Environmental Politics,  20:28-48. 2020.
This article describes and analyzes the international law and politics of gene drives’ research, development, and possible use, with an emphasis on their potential biodiversity applications.
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Incorporating Characteristics of Gene Drive Engineered Ae. aegypti as Methods to Reduce Dengue and Zika Virus into the Bayesian Network – Relative Risk Model, Using Ponce, Puerto Rico as a Case Study

S. R. Eikenbary,  WWU Graduate School Collection,  2020.
The Bayesian network relative risk model can perform the risk assessment of gene drive engineered Ae. aegypti for vector control and as part of an adaptive management strategy to reduce dengue and Zika transmission. This study illustrates how the BN-RRM can integrate gene drive ...
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Global Governing Bodies: A Pathway for Gene Drive Governance for Vector Mosquito Control

A. Kelsey, D. Stillinger, T. B. Pham, J. Murphy, S. Firth and R. Carballar-Lejarazú,  American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene,  2020.
We examined the current institutions and governing bodies among various continents that could have an impact on gene drive governance or the potential to adapt to its future use. Possible governance strategies also are proposed that seek to bridge gaps and promote an ethically ...
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Exploring gene drive’s role in fight against malaria

J. Conrow,  Genetic Literacy Project,  2020.
J. Conrow (2020) Genetic Literacy Project. An international initiative has formed to ensure that gene drive technology gets a chance to prove its mettle in the quest to control malaria.
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Lettre ouverte a Monsieur le Premier Ministre demandant l’interdiction de la production, de l’utilisation et de la dissémination de tout OGM issu du forçage génétique

A. Bossu, N. Laarman, D. Houdebine, H. Le Meur, F. Jacquemart and F. Warlop,  Open Letter,  2020.
A. Bossu, N. Laarman, D. Houdebine, H. Le Meur, F. Jacquemart and F. Warlop (2020). Open Letter. An open letter from French civil society organizations urging the French Parliament to support a resolution at the upcoming Convention on Biodiversity that would call for a ...
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Release of genetically modified mosquitoes in the Florida Keys put on hold

D. Goodhue,  Miami Herald,  2020.
Opponents of a plan to release millions of genetically modified mosquitoes in the Florida Keys landed a temporary win on Tuesday.
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Providing a policy framework for responsible gene drive research: an analysis of the existing governance landscape and priority areas for further research

D. Thizy, I. Coche and J. de Vries,  Wellcome Open Research,  2020.
D. Thizy, I. Coche and J. de Vries (2020). Wellcome Open Research. doi: 10.12688/wellcomeopenres.16023.1 In this manuscript, we review the existing regulatory landscape around gene drive research and map areas of convergence and divergence, as well as gaps in relation to ...
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EPA approves field trials of genetically modified mosquito

A. Wernick,  WBFO npr,  2020.
The Environmental Protection Agency has given biotech company Oxitec the go-ahead to test the effectiveness of genetically modified mosquitoes in parts of Florida and Texas. Oxitec has been developing genetically modified mosquitoes in hopes of reducing local populations of ...
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Genome Editing in Food and Farming: Risks and unexpected consequences

J. Cotter and D. Perls,  Canadian Biotechnology Action Network,  2020.
J. Cotter and D. Perls (2020). Canadian Biotechnology Action Network. In this report, we provide an overview of genome editing techniques being explored in agriculture, and the range of potential unexpected effects that can arise from them. The report draws on recent scientific ...
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Genome Editing 2020: Ethics and Human Rights in Germline Editing in Humans and Gene Drives in Mosquitoes

G. J. Annas,  American Journal of Law and Medicine,  46:143-165. 2020.
G. J. Annas (2020). American Journal of Law and Medicine. doi: 10.1177/0098858820933492. I begin with a discussion of so far disastrously unsuccessful attempts to regulate germline editing in humans, including a summary of the first application of germline genome editing in ...
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CSOs raise alarm over genetically-engineered mosquitoes in Nigeria

A. Oboh,  Vanguard,  2020.
No fewer than 75 civil society organisations, CSOs, across the world have raised the alarm over moves to release genetically-modified mosquitoes in Nigeria, noting that the country was about to be used as a guinea pig for the project, which will endanger humans, biodiversity and ...
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Groups warn against release of genetically-engineered mosquitoes in Nigeria

C. Onyesi,  Daily Post,  2020.
C. Onyesi (2020). Daily Post. Over 75 Civil Society Organizations from Nigeria, Africa and the world have condemned moves to open the way for the release of genetically modified mosquitoes in Nigeria.
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Malaria: Over 75 CSOs raise alarm over plans to release nautically engineered mosquitoes

News Agency of Nigeria,  WorldStage,  2020.
Mre than 75 Environmental Civil Society Organisations from Nigeria, Africa and other countries have condemned moves to open way for release of genetically modified mosquitoes to control malaria infection. The News Agency of Nigeria (NAN), reports that at a virtual meeting of ...
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NGOs call for moratorium on controversial ‘gene drive organisms’

N. Foote,  EURACTIV,  2020.
https://borgenproject.org/3-innovative-technologies-stopping-malaria/
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Nigerian government restates commitment to safety in applying modern biotechnology

Agencies,  today ng,  2020.
The National Biosafety Management Agency (NBMA) has reiterated its commitment to ensure the safety of the public while applying modern biotechnology to boost food security and economic development of citizens. Dr Rufus Ebegba, Director-General, NBMA, gave the assurance at a ...
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Soon we’ll be able to engineer the wild, can the policies keep up with the science?

M. Montague and A. Kobokovich,  The Hill