Keywords: regulation

Transformative Novel Technologies and Global Environmental Governance

F. Rabitz,  Cambridge University Press,  2023.
Transformative Novel Technologies are potential gamechangers for confronting climate change, biodiversity loss, and many other elements of the global environmental crisis, allowing us to achieve a more sustainable future. The contemporary and future international governance of ...
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Conceptual risk assessment of mosquito population modification gene-drive systems to control malaria transmission: preliminary hazards list workshops

A. Kormos, G. Dimopoulos, E. Bier, G. C. Lanzaro, J. M. Marshall and A. A. James,  Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology,  11. 2023.
The field-testing and eventual adoption of genetically-engineered mosquitoes (GEMs) to control vector-borne pathogen transmission will require them meeting safety criteria specified by regulatory authorities in regions where the technology is being considered for use and other ...
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Benefits and risks of gene drives for invasive plant management – the case for common tansy

L. Croghan, A. G. Smith, M. A. Tancos, N. O. Anderson and R. L. Becker,  Frontiers in Agronomy,  5. 2023.
Invasive plants cause significant environmental and economic damage, but land managers have few control options. Common tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) is prevalent in many US states and is one of the most reported invasive plants in Minnesota. Controlling common tansy poses a ...
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Proposed Changes to the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules (NIH Guidelines)

National Institutes of Health,  Federal Register,  2023.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) seeks input on a proposal to revise the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules (NIH Guidelines) to include specific considerations and requirements for conducting research involving gene drive ...
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Requirements for market entry of gene drive-modified mosquitoes for control of vector-borne diseases: analogies to other biologic and biotechnology products

S. L. James, H. Quemada, M. Q. Benedict and B. Dass,  Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology,  11:1205865. 2023.
Gene drive-modified mosquitoes (GDMMs) are proposed as new tools for control and elimination of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases, and promising results have been observed from testing conducted in containment. Although still at an early stage of development, it is ...
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Evolution driven by genetic engineering should be known as ‘genetic welding’ to draw scientific and ethical scrutiny

S. Moore,  AZO Life Sciences,  2023.
The advent of CRISPR-Cas9 technology has been revolutionary, but it has also been highly controversial. In an opinion paper published in the journal Trends in Genetics, evolutionary geneticist Asher Cutter highlights the importance of coining the term ‘genetic welding’ for ...
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Regulatory and policy considerations for the implementation of gene drive-modified mosquitoes to prevent malaria transmission

S. L. James, B. Dass and H. Quemada,  Transgenic Research,  2023.
Gene drive-modified mosquitoes (GDMMs) are being developed as possible new tools to prevent transmission of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. To date no GDMMs have yet undergone field testing. This early stage is an opportune time for developers, supporters, and possible ...
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Social justice environmental activists move to block gene editing to control invasive species and promote biodiversity. Here’s why they’re misguided

S. Smyth,  Genetic Literacy Project,  2023.
Control of invasive species has been extremely difficult with eradication virtually impossible. To control invasive plant species, chemicals are commonly used while in some instances removal of plants by hand, as Shiva advocates, is undertaken. Efforts to control invasive animals ...
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Environmental, Socio-economic, and Health Impact Assessment (ESHIA) for Gene Drive Organisms

isaaa Inc. and Outreach Network for Gene Drive Research,  ISAAA,  2023.
Understanding the possible positive and negative impacts that gene drive organisms could have on the environment and people is essential before these technologies are considered for release, whether for research purposes or for use. Different impacts are assessed through ...
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Genes drive organisms and slippery slopes

D. B. Resnik, R. F. Medina, F. Gould, G. Church and J. Kuzma,  Pathog Glob Health,  2022.
The bioethical debate about using gene drives to alter or eradicate wild populations has focused mostly on issues concerning short-term risk assessment and management, governance and oversight, and public and community engagement, but has not examined big-picture- 'where is this ...
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Gene editing and agrifood systems

FAO,  FAO,  2022.
Gene-editing technologies represent a promising new tool for plant and animal breeding in low- and middle-income countries. They enhance precision and efficiency over current breeding methods and could lead to rapid development of improved plant varieties and animal breeds. ...
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East African policy dialogue on research of genetically modified mosquitoes for malaria control and elimination

C. Mugoya,  Target Malaria,  2022.
The East African Community Secretariat, in collaboration with the East African Health Research Commission; NEPAD, AFIDEP and IFAKARA Health Institute recently convened an East African regional dialogue in Dar es salaam, Tanzania from 17-19 November 2022 to deliberate the way ...
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No Environmental Release of Gene Drive Organisms

Anonymous,  STOP GENE DRIVES,  2022.
We urge governments to prevent the environmental release of gene drive organisms and to establish a global moratorium on the release of gene drive organisms at the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Gene drives work against natural rules of inheritance forcing nearly ...
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GMOs in Africa: Status, adoption and public acceptance

L. A. Gbadegesin, E. A. Ayeni, C. K. Tettey, V. A. Uyanga, O. O. Aluko, J. K. Ahiakpa, C. O. Okoye, J. I. Mbadianya, M. A. Adekoya, R. O. Aminu, F. P. Oyawole and P. Odufuwa,  Food Control,  141:109193. 2022.
Globally, genetically modified (GM) crops contribute to food security by increasing crop yield, quality and shelf-life. The commercialisation and adoption of GM crops in many developed countries raised hope of improving food security and livelihood. Africa, a developing continent ...
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Points to consider in seeking biosafety approval for research, testing, and environmental release of experimental genetically modified biocontrol products during research and development

W. K. Tonui, V. Ahuja, C. J. Beech, J. B. Connolly, B. Dass, D. C. M. Glandorf, et al.,  Transgenic Research,  2022.
Novel genetically modified biological control products (referred to as “GM biocontrol products”) are being considered to address a range of complex problems in public health, conservation, and agriculture, including preventing the transmission of vector-borne parasitic and ...
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Toward product-based regulation of crops

F. Gould, R. M. Amasino, D. Brossard, C. R. Buell, R. A. Dixon, J. B. Falck-Zepeda, M. A. Gallo, K. E. Giller, L. L. Glenna, T. Griffin, D. Magraw, C. Mallory-Smith, K. V. Pixley, E. P. Ransom, D. M. Stelly and C. N. Stewart,  Science,  377:1051-1053. 2022.
Current process-based approaches to regulation are no longer fit for purpose Much effort has been expended globally over the past four decades to craft and update country-specific and multinational safety regulations that can be applied to crops developed by genetic engineering ...
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Researchers propose new framework for regulating engineered crops

North Carolina State University,  Phys Org,  2022.
A Policy Forum article published today in Science calls for a new approach to regulating genetically engineered (GE) crops, arguing that current approaches for triggering safety testing vary dramatically among countries and generally lack scientific merit—particularly as ...
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ISAAA Policy Brief: Risk Assessment for Gene Drive Organisms

Anonymous,  ISAAA,  2022.
Gene drive is a genetic phenomenon that occurs in nature and causes a selected trait to spread rapidly through a species via sexual reproduction over generations, potentially becoming increasingly common within a specific species. Gene drive systems are being developed in the ...
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Infravec2 guidelines for the design and operation of containment level 2 and 3 insectaries in Europe

E. Pondeville, A.-B. Failloux, F. Simard, P. Volf, A. Crisanti, R. E. Haghighat-Khah, N. Busquets, F. X. Abad, A. J. Wilson, R. Bellini, S. Marsh Arnaud, A. Kohl and E. Veronesi,  Pathogens and Global Health,  2022.
ABSTRACTWith the current expansion of vector-based research and an increasing number of facilities rearing arthropod vectors and infecting them with pathogens, common measures for containment of arthropods as well as manipulation of pathogens are becoming essential for the design ...
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Environmentally appropriate vector control is facilitated by standard metrics for simulation-based evaluation

V. N. Vásquez, M. R. Reddy and J. M. Marshall,  Frontiers in Tropical Diseases,  3. 2022.
As anthropogenic factors contribute to the introduction and expansion of new and established vector species, the geographic incidence of mosquito-borne disease is shifting. Computer simulations, informed by field data where possible, facilitate the cost-effective evaluation of ...
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Natural selfish genetic elements should not be defined as gene drives

M. A. Wells and R. A. Steinbrecher,  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,  119:e2201142119. 2022.
Gene drives are increasingly discussed in the political realm,and how the term is defined therefore has important impli-cations. The opinion piece from Alphey et al. (1) identifies alack of consensus on the definition and makes explicitchanges in how the terminology is being used ...
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What do we mean by “Target Organism” in Target Malaria’s gene drive research?

J. B. Connolly,  Target Malaria,  2022.
In the wild and in laboratory settings, sibling mosquito species can successfully mate to produce viable offspring, regardless of whether they are vectors or not. Importantly, females, but not males, of these offspring can be fertile. Nonetheless, the likelihood of finding such ...
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Larval mosquito management and risk to aquatic ecosystems: A comparative approach including current tactics and gene-drive Anopheles techniques

R. K. D. Peterson and M. G. Rolston,  Transgenic Research,  2022.
Genetic engineering of mosquitoes represents a promising tactic for reducing human suffering from malaria. Gene-drive techniques being developed that suppress or modify populations of Anopheles gambiae have the potential to be used with, or even possibly obviate, microbial and ...
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Public deliberation and the regulation of gene drive in the USA

W. F. West, L. W. Buchman and R. F. Medina,  Science and Public Policy,  scac032. 2022.
Gene drive is a new form of biotechnology designed to bias the inheritance of selected traits in animal or plant species that reproduce sexually and have relatively short reproductive cycles. Unlike traditional breeding techniques and other forms of biotechnology, gene drive is ...
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Genetically Modified Mosquitoes to Fight Malaria in Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Mali and Uganda: What Legal Response?

O. J. L. Tung,  Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal,  25:1-42. 2022.
Advanced applied research on genetically modified (hereafter GM) insects is being undertaken to control insect vectors of human diseases such as mosquitoes. GM insect technologies are being developed in countries where there is a legal ...
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Genetically modified mosquitoes for controlling vector-borne diseases? Successful trial gives hope

T. Deol,  Down To Earth,  2022.
Preliminary results of an open-air study of genetically engineered mosquitoes — with an aim to suppress a wild population of virus-carrying mosquitoes — in the United States have shown promising results. The aim of the experiment by Oxitec, a United Kingdom-based ...
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Release of genetically modified mosquitoes created to fight disease a success: Biotech firm

C. Greenberg,  National Post,  2022.
The release of genetically modified mosquitoes in the United States created to fight disease has gone according to plan, biotechnology firm Oxitec says.The first phase of the pilot study consisted of releasing almost 5 million modified Aedes aegypti male mosquitoes in the Florida ...
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Tests of Genetically Modified Mosquitoes Prove Positive

R. Ellis,  WebMD,  2022.
The first open-air study of genetically modified mosquitoes in the United States has yielded positive results, says Oxitec, the UK-based company that ran the study. However, Oxitec says larger tests are needed to determine whether the insects can suppress the disease-spreading ...
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Genetically Modified Mosquitoes Work as Intended

M. L. Ford,  NEWSER,  2022.
Results are in from a pilot study in Florida, where millions of genetically engineered mosquitoes were released into the wild. Some referred to it as the “Jurassic Park” experiment when it was announced last year, but—so far—everything is going to plan, according to UK ...
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The plan to release genetically engineered mosquitoes in California

M. Petersen,  Phys Org,  2022.
In the mosquito breeding rooms of British biotech company Oxitec, scientists line up fresh eggs, each the size of a grain of salt. Using microscopic needles, the white-coated researchers inject each egg with a dab of a proprietary synthetic DNA. For four days, Oxitec technicians ...
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Genetically-Modified Mosquitos Could Soon Be Released in California

A. Madrigal,  KQED,  2022.
Millions of genetically-modified, non-biting mosquitoes may soon be set loose in California after federal regulators gave the green light to a study aimed at preventing transmission of diseases like Zika and dengue. British biotech firm Oxitech says its technology alters male ...
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Will genetic modification of mosquitoes take a bite out of insects’ population?

N. Patel,  KCRW,  2022.
An invasive species of aggressive “ankle biters” called the Aedes aegypti mosquito is now in LA, and it’s spreading quickly. These tiny vampires can lay eggs in a space as small as a water-filled bottle cap, and they carry diseases like yellow fever and dengue. A British ...
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An army of genetically engineered mosquitoes is about to be released

M. Menard,  KNX NEWS,  2022.
A British biotech company has been altering the DNA of mosquitoes with the goal of killing off a more dangerous breed capable of spreading deadly diseases. And now they’re preparing to release their “friendly mosquitoes” into the wild. In California. Aedes aegypti is an ...
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California’s first genetically modified mosquitoes may soon be released

A. M. Asperin,  FOX11 Los Angeles,  2022.
How would you feel about a few genetically engineered mosquitoes flying into your neighborhood? It's a possibility after the US Environmental Protection Agency on Friday approved pilot projects of Oxitec's mosquitoes in specific districts in California and Florida. The next ...
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In California, an army of genetically engineered mosquitoes awaits release. Will it backfire?

M. Petersen,  Los Angeles Times,  2022.
In the mosquito breeding rooms of British biotech company Oxitec, scientists line up fresh eggs, each the size of a grain of salt. Using microscopic needles, the white-coated researchers inject each egg with a dab of a proprietary synthetic DNA. For four days, Oxitec technicians ...
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Federal Government Approves Release of Millions of Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes in California

A. Jose,  The Western Journal,  2022.
Genetically modified Aedes aegypti mosquitoes could soon buzz around in California and Florida after the federal government greenlighted a plan to release the insects in the states. The project is spearheaded by biotechnology firm Oxitec, which, among other things, specializes in ...
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Billions of Genetically Modified Mosquitoes Are Set to Descend on California and Florida This Summer

J. Rossen,  MENTAL FLOSS,  2022.
Californians may not know it on sight, but there’s going to be something different about their mosquitoes this summer. An invasive species of the bite-prone insects has been genetically modified in an attempt at controlling disease spread. According to Smithsonian, the ...
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Genetically modified mosquitoes, a potential antidote to deadly diseases

TRTWorld,  TRTWorld,  2022.
The US approved the release of billions of genetically modified mosquitoes to reduce the transmission of diseases but critics point to possible unintended consequences. Can genetically modified animals combat the spread of deadly diseases? The United States Environmental ...
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Why a U.S. Company Plans to Release 2.4 Billion Genetically Modified Mosquitoes

M. Osborne,  Smithosonian Magazine,  2022.
The Environmental Protection Agency has cleared the release of 2.4 billion genetically-modified mosquitoes in California and Florida. The mosquitoes, created by biotech firm Oxitec, will be non-biting Aedes aegypti males engineered to only produce viable male offspring, per the ...
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US poised to release 2.4bn genetically modified male mosquitoes to battle deadly diseases

G. Canon,  The Guardian,  2022.
Genetically modified male mosquitoes may soon be buzzing across areas of California, in an experiment to stop the spread of invasive species in a warming climate. Earlier this month, the EPA cleared the UK-based biotech company Oxitec to release a maximum of roughly 2.4bn of its ...
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Millions of genetically engineered mosquitoes are here to protect us

M. Kaufman,  MASHABLE,  2022.
Aedes aegypti almost certainly traveled to California in cargo, like many invasive species do. The species, which flourishes in warmer climes, has colonized places like Los Angeles County, and is expected to multiply and spread in these temperate regions as the climate ...
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A scourge of genetically modified mosquitoes could be unleashed in California

J. Bote,  SFGATE,  2022.
A genetically modified scourge of mosquitoes could be unleashed throughout California as municipalities across the state grapple with increasing bouts of an invasive mosquito species. The mosquitoes, developed by the British biotech firm Oxitec, are known as OX5034 — a modified ...
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The power of gene editing

The Economist,  The Economist,  2022.
Technologies such as genetic modification and ‘CRISPR’ will cure hereditary diseases, produce disease-resistant crops and enable the breeding of malaria-free mosquitos. But advances bring ethical and practical dilemmas. Genetically modified food is banned in the EU, and ...
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Could species-focused suppression of Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, and Aedes albopictus, the tiger mosquito, affect interacting predators? An evidence synthesis from the literature

J. A. S. Bonds, C. M. Collins and L.-C. Gouagna,  Pest Management Science,  2022.
The risks of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus nuisance and vector-borne diseases are rising and the adverse effects of broad-spectrum insecticide application has promoted species-specific techniques, such as sterile insect technique (SIT) and other genetic strategies, as ...
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Billions of GE Mosquitoes May Soon Be Released in California and Florida

A. N. Mitra,  Earth Island Journal,  2022.
he US Environmental Protection Agency’s decision last week to allow the release of billions of genetically engineered mosquitoes in California and Florida has several environmental and public health groups worried about the potential impacts of the experimental releases on ...
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California’s first lab-grown mosquitoes may take flight—stirring controversy

L. M. Krieger,  Phys Org,  2022.
A biotech firm is seeking permission to release genetically modified mosquitoes into the open air of California for the first time later this year, aiming to reduce the expanding populations of invasive mosquitoes and prevent deadly disease. The controversial research ...
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Genetically modified mosquitoes kill their own offspring

C. Ward,  SYFY,  2022.
Oxitec, a biotech company, has developed a strain of A. aegypti which they call Friendly. Their modified mosquitos are all males and carry a gene which prevents the birth of females in subsequent generations. In short, they’re reducing disease-carrying mosquitos by killing ...
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Millions Of Genetically Modified Mosquitoes To Be Set Loose In US

H. Wilmerding,  Daily Caller,  2022.
Millions of genetically modified mosquitoes will be released in the United States as part of an initiative to replace the insects carrying deadly diseases, the company behind the plan announced Tuesday. The program, led by biotechnology company Oxitec, will release roughly 2 ...
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Florida Begins Release of Genetically Altered Mosquitoes to Prevent Spread of Zika

Entrepreneur staff,  Entrepreneur,  2022.
Since 2016, Zika , a disease transmitted by a virus that spreads an invasive species of mosquito, has plagued various regions of the world, including areas of Florida and Texas in the United States. In May 2020, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved a program to ...
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2 Billion Genetically Modified Mosquitoes Have Been Approved For Release In Florida And California

J. U. Nisa,  Wonder Engineering,  2022.
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has sanctioned the release of 2 billion genetically modified mosquitos in Florida and California, Oxitec, the company that created the genetically modified mosquitoes, said. Oxitec’s experimental program intends to reduce the spread ...
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Billions of genetically modified male mosquitos will be released in California and Florida as a ‘natural pest control’ to stop the spread of diseases like Zika, yellow fever and Dengue

R. Morrison,  Daily Mail,  2022.
Billions of genetically engineered male mosquitos will be released in California and Florida over the next two years, as part of a mission to kill off biting females. Oxitec, based in Oxford UK, is a biological pest control development firm, that has produced the edited version ...
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2 billion genetically modified mosquitos are about to be released in the US

J. Hawkins,  yahoo,  2022.
Scientists have been playing god with mosquitos for a couple of years now. Back in 2021, British company Oxitec released 750 million lab-modified mosquitos in Florida. Now, the company is gearing up to release another 2 billion genetically modified mosquitos across more of ...
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2 Billion Genetically Altered Mosquitoes Will Be Released in Fla. and Calif. to Fight Disease

A. Adams,  People,  2022.
Billions of genetically modified mosquitoes are expected to be released within the next two years as part of an expanded version of an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study — but the project is receiving criticism from advocacy groups that believe it could be ...
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Genetically modified mosquitoes could be tested in California soon

S. Milius,  Science News,  2022.
Genetically modified mosquitoes might soon be whining on both U.S. coasts. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has approved two more years of testing Oxitec’s genetically modified mosquitoes as living pest controls, continuing a pilot program started in 2021 in the Florida ...
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Why millions of genetically modified mosquitoes could be released across US

J. Rogers,  New York Post,  2022.
The US could soon be swarming with genetically altered mosquitoes after the Environmental Protection Agency approved a plan to test the insects. It is hoped the new altered mosquitoes will ward off their natural, disease-causing counterparts. Biotechnology company Oxitec has ...
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Genetically Modified Mosquitoes May Be Released in Fla and Calif

R. Ellis,  WebMD,  2022.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has approved the release of 2 billion genetically altered mosquitoes in Florida and California, the company that created the genetically modified mosquitoes said. The experimental program created by Oxitec is designed to reduce the ...
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2 Billion Genetically Modified Mosquitoes Cleared for Release in California and Florida

E. Cara,  gizmodo,  2022.
British biotech firm Oxitec announced this week that it has received approval from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for its genetically modified mosquitoes to be released in parts of Florida and in California, following the completion of a pilot program last year. The ...
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Genetically Modified Mosquitoes Set to Be Released in California and Florida

K. Roberts,  The Epoch Times,  2022.
Millions of genetically modified mosquitoes are set to be released in California and Florida in an effort to reduce the number of real, disease-carrying invasive mosquitoes. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on Monday approved use of the genetically engineered insects in ...
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Proposed moquito release for Tulare County draws concern

E. Smith,  The Business Journal,  2022.
News of the approval to release genetically-modified mosquitoes in Tulare County and Monroe County, Florida has drawn the ire of activists who say the company behind the project has not provided data demonstrating the insects are safe. At the same time, the company says it has ...
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Millions of genetically modified mosquitoes may soon be buzzing in Florida and California. Here’s why.

R. W. Miller,  USA Today,  2022.
Millions of genetically altered mosquitoes that seek to ward off their natural, disease-causing counterparts may soon be released in Florida and California after the Environmental Protection Agency approved a plan to further test the modified insects. Developed by the ...
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‘Halt this nightmare immediately’: EPA approves release of genetically-engineered mosquitoes

J. Corbett,  AlterNet,  2022.
Environmental and public health advocates responded with alarm after the Biden administration on Monday gave a British biotechnology company a green light to unleash billions of genetically engineered mosquitoes in the United States. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ...
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Genetically Engineered Mosquito Imminent Mass Release Ignores Science, Public Health and Environmental Risks

H. Bourque,  Friends of the Earth,  2022.
In defiance of science and public health concerns, today the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved the mass release of billions of experimental genetically engineered (GE) mosquitoes into the United States’ most populous and agriculturally significant states. The ...
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Should we kill every mosquito on Earth?

J. Phelan,  LiveScience,  2022.
Before you grab that can of bug spray, know this: While some mosquitoes are dangerous to us, not all are. Even those that are sometimes harmful tend not to feed on humans, preferring honeydew, plant sap and nectar, according to Mosquito Joe, a mosquito control company. There are ...
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Regulation of genetically engineered (GE) mosquitoes as a public health tool: a public health ethics analysis

Z. Meghani,  Globalization and Health,  18:21. 2022.
In recent years, genetically engineered (GE) mosquitoes have been proposed as a public health measure against the high incidence of mosquito-borne diseases among the poor in regions of the global South. While uncertainties as well as risks for humans and ecosystems are entailed ...
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An Ethical Overview of the CRISPR-Based Elimination of Anopheles gambiae to Combat Malaria

I. J. Wise and P. Borry,  Journal of Bioethical Inquiry,  2022.
Approximately a quarter of a billion people around the world suffer from malaria each year. Most cases are located in sub-Saharan Africa where Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes are the principal vectors of this public health problem. With the use of CRISPR-based gene drives, the ...
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A Closing Window of Opportunity for Gene Drive Governance in the United States

K. L. Warmbrod, M. Montague and G. K. Gronvall,  Health Security,  20:3-5. 2022.
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought forth a number of biotechnological advances to enhance the public's health: new diagnostic tests, mRNA vaccines, and new antiviral medications. Biotechnology is also being used to address global challenges like climate change, food insecurity, ...
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Insect Allies – Assessment of a Viral Approach to Plant Genome Editing

K. Pfeifer, J. L. Frieß and B. Giese,  Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management,  2022.
The DARPA program Insect Allies has already sparked scientific debate concerning technology assessment-related issues, among which the most prevalent is that of dual use potential. As apart from the issues concerning peaceful applications, the technology also provides the ...
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iGEM and Gene Drives: A Case Study for Governance

P. Millett, T. Alexanian, M. J. Palmer, S. W. Evans, T. Kuiken and K. Oye,  Health Security,  2022.
Gene drives have already challenged governance systems. In this case study, we explore the International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition's experiences in gene drive-related research and lessons in developing, revising, and implementing a governance system. ...
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The Need for a Tiered Registry for US Gene Drive Governance

K. L. Warmbrod, A. L. Kobokovich, R. West, G. K. Gronvall and M. Montague,  Health Security,  2022.
A great deal of attention has been focused on the potential risks of gene drives, the kinds of biosafety protections they may require, and how they may be reversed; however, less attention has been paid to the systems that would be useful to have in place in the future, when ...
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An Introduction to Containment Recommendations for Gene Drive Mosquitoes and the Laboratory Rearing of Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes in Africa

S. Higgs,  Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases,  2022.
The prospect of using genetically engineered arthropods to reduce the incidence of vector-borne diseases either indirectly by suppressing vector populations or directly by replacing wild-type vector species with less competent ones has long been discussed; however, only in the ...
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Information Sharing in Senegal on the Gene Drive Technology as a potential Complementary Tool for Malaria Vector Control

AUDA-NEPAD,  AUDA-NEPAD,  2022.
AUDA-NEPAD in partnership with the National Biosafety Authority (Autorité Nationale de Biosécurité (ANB) in Senegal organized an Information sharing meeting on the gene drive technology as a complementary tool for malaria vector control, from 22-23 December 2021, in Somone, ...
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Stakeholder Views on Engagement, Trust, Performance, and Risk Considerations About Use of Gene Drive Technology in Agricultural Pest Management

C. L. Goldsmith, K. E. Kang, E. Heitman, Z. N. Adelman, L. W. Buchman, D. Kerns, X. Liu, R. F. Medina and A. Vedlitz,  Health Security,  2021.
Gene drive is an experimental technique that may make it possible to alter the genetic traits of whole populations of a species through the genetic modification of a relatively small number of individuals. This technology is sufficiently new that literature on the understanding ...
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Facilitating the Conversation: Gene Drive Classification

J. Overcash and A. Golnar,  Health Security,  2021.
Gene drives are an emerging technology with tremendous potential to impact public health, agriculture, and conservation. While gene drives can be described simply as selfish genetic elements (natural or engineered) that are inherited at non-Mendelian rates, upon closer ...
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Integrated Management of Malaria Vectors in Africa

R. Mbabazi, K. Maredia, B. B. El-Sayed, A. K. Babumba, M. Savadogo and O. Akinbo,  Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies,  2021.
Malaria disease is a major public health burden in Africa. The control of malaria vectors is a critical component for prevention, management, and eradication of malaria disease. This chapter presents information on the current status of malaria vector control in Africa with ...
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Laboratory Biosafety in Handling Genetically Modified Mosquitoes

J. Charles,  Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies,  2021.
One of the novel approaches in controlling vector-borne diseases is to release genetically modified mosquitoes in nature. Trial studies are done in different phases by the researches, both in the laboratory and in the fields. Before a GM mosquito is validated to be ready for ...
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Safety Assessment of Novel Genetic Technologies for Vector Control: National and International Perspectives

V. Ahuja,  Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies,  2021.
Novel genetic technologies provide an alternative approach for control of vectors particularly those carrying deadly pathogens. Genetic control technologies aim to either suppress target populations or modify the vector by introducing a heritable factor that reduces or blocks ...
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Measuring Public Attitudes to Releases of Transgenic Mosquitoes for Disease Control, with Special Reference to Dengue and Malaria

L. A. De Las Llagas and M. S. T. Gunigundo,  Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies,  2021.
Since the advent of DDT in public health and agriculture, science leaped forward with revolutionary technology such as gene drive or editing, thus making it possible to develop alternative approaches to address vector-borne diseases. However, their utilization and sustenance in ...
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Safe Application of Genetically Modified Mosquito (GMM) to Combat Dengue and Chikungunya Depends on Socioeconomic Status and Social Acceptance in the Developing Countries: A Comprehensive Analysis

M. N. Islam,  Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies,  2021.
The emerging and re-emerging vector-borne diseases are a serious public health problem throughout the world. It has been observed that more than 100 countries and approximately half of the world’s population are at risk on vector-borne diseases (VBDs). The global burden of the ...
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Deficits of Public Deliberation in U.S. Oversight for Gene Edited Organisms

J. Kuzma,  Hastings Center Report,  51 Suppl 2:S25-s33. 2021.
Environmental releases of gene edited (GEdOs) and gene drive organisms (GDOs) will likely occur under conditions of high uncertainty and in complex socioecological systems. Therefore, public deliberation is especially important to account for diverse interpretations of safety, ...
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New molecular genetic techniques: regulatory and societal considerations

Nielsen, K. M.,  AREA-WIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: Development and Field Application,  2021.
A rapidly expanding toolbox of techniques available for genome editing provides the basis for a new continuum in types of modifications that can be introduced into a genome and blur the bimodal GMO vs. non-GMO (genetically modified organism) divide. Site-directed nucleases (SDN) ...
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Genome editing and its applications for insect pest control: Curse or blessing?

Hacker, I. , and Schetelig, M. F,  AREA-WIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: Development and Field Application,  2021.
Gene and genome editing are described as cutting-edge research tools with the potential to tackle urgent global challenges in the management of agricultural pests and human disease vectors such as mosquitoes. The field is defined by the chances and challenges to interlink the ...
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CRISPR-based gene drives for combatting malaria: Need for an early stage technology assessment.

Liebert, W.,  AREA-WIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: Development and Field Application,  2021.
The potential power of CRISPR-based gene drives makes it necessary to engage in science and technology assessment already in early stages of research and development. In order to argue for efforts to address this urgent need, gene drives to combat malaria-transmitting mosquitoes ...
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Containment Practices for Arthropods Modified with Engineered Transgenes Capable of Gene Drive Addendum 1 to the Arthropod Containment Guidelines, Version 3.2

American Committee of Medical Entomology,  Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases,  2021.
Responsible conduct of research is a cornerstone of rigorous scientific discovery. Institutional committees, independent advisory panels, and expert steering groups are among the frameworks in academia meant to provide guidance and assurances that research activities do not ...
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European Parliament adopts text on biodiversity, calls for no releases of gene drive organisms

Third World Network,  TWN Biosafety Briefing,  2021.
Gene drive technologies, such as GM mosquitoes for the control of vector-borne diseases, pose serious and novel threats for the environment and nature, including irreversible changes to food chains and ecosystems, and losses of biodiversity, on which the world’s poorest depend ...
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Gene drive and RNAi technologies: a bio-cultural review of next-generation tools for pest wasp management in New Zealand

S. Palmer, P. K. Dearden, O. R. Mercier, A. King-Hunt and P. J. Lester,  Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand,  1-18. 2021.
There is a global need for novel, next-generation technologies and techniques to manage pest species. We review work on potential step-changing technologies for large landscape (>1000 hectares) pest management of social Vespula wasps. We also review M?ori perspectives on these ...
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Weltnaturschutzunion sucht Position

Anonymous,  Informationsdienst Gentechnik,  2021.
Die Weltnaturschutzunion IUCN will in den nächsten drei Jahren eine breite interne Diskussion führen, ob Gentechnik und Gene Drives im Naturschutz eingesetzt werden sollen. Mit diesem Beschluss ist der Versuch gentechnikfreundlicher Organisationen, mit Artenschutz-Argumenten ...
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Calling the latest gene technologies ‘natural’ is a semantic distraction — they must still be regulated

J. A. Heinemann, D. J. Paull, S. Walker and B. Kurenbach,  The Conversation,  2021.
Legislators around the world are being asked to reconsider how to regulate the latest developments in gene technology, genome editing and gene silencing. Both the European Court of Justice and the New Zealand High Court have ruled that genome editing techniques should remain ...
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New report demands moratorium on gene drives

GM Watch,  GM Watch,  2021.
To help the public understand what's at stake, the Germany-based NGO Save Our Seeds (SOS) has published a report, "Gene Drives: The New Dimension of Genetic Engineering", which can be downloaded as a pdf document. The report provides a scientifically founded overview of how ...
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Gene Drive Organisms: A new dimension of genetic engineering

V. Henn and M. Imken,  Save Our Seeds,  2021.
Enabled by new genetic engineering techniques such as CRISPR/Cas9, so-called gene drives have been developed in recent years that enable humans to spread new genes throughout the genome of wild animal populations. Gene drives force the inheritance of newly introduced genes to be ...
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To exterminate, or not to: Scientists debate tweaking wild genomes

French Press Agency,  Daily Sabah,  2021.
veryone remembers Jeff Goldblum's famous speech in 1993 classic Jurassic Park: “Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether they could, they didn't stop to think if they should.” Well, these scientists are debating whether one should. In the movie, reconstructing and ...
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The viral era

B. Giese,  EMBO reports,  22:e53229. 2021.
New biotechnologies such as gene drives and engineered viruses herald a viral era that would give humans exceptional power over any organism at the level of the genotype. In synthetic biology, orthogonality—in the sense of lack of interference—between different systems or ...
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The international governance of gene drive organisms

F. Rabitz,  Environmental Politics,  2021.
Gene Drive Organisms (GDOs) are a proposed biotechnological intervention that might generate significant benefits for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity while also raising critical biosafety issues. Despite their inevitable transboundary effects, their ...
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2021 WHO guidelines on genetically modified mosquitoes

M. Makoni,  The Lancet Microbe,  2:e353. 2021.
On May 19, 2021, WHO updated its guidelines for research and development on genetically modified mosquitoes, which define the standards for decision-making about how and when testing should proceed and describe best practices to ensure that research done in a public health ...
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Oxitec and MosquitoMate in the United States: lessons for the future of gene drive mosquito control

C. E. Schairer, J. Najera, A. A. James, O. S. Akbari and C. S. Bloss,  Pathogens and Global Health,  2021.
ABSTRACTIn response to growing concerns regarding mosquito-borne diseases, scientists are developing novel systems of vector control. Early examples include Oxitec?s OX513A genetically-engineered mosquito and MosquitoMate?s Wolbachia-infected mosquito, and systems using ...
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Gene Drives – Engineering the Wild

L. Sharratt,  Sentinel,  2021.
So far, genetically engineered organisms have been mostly limited to agricultural use, with partial success. Around the world, a few major crops (mostly corn, soy, and cotton) are genetically engineered, predominantly for herbicide tolerance and insect resistance. However, the ...
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Africa Turning to Gene Drive Technology for Malaria Elimination

M. Hearty,  Science Africa,  2021.
With Africa accounting for nine out of ten malaria cases globally, the continent is turning to gene drive technology to control the disease. This is according to a decision made by African leaders at the 29th Summit of Heads of States and Governments of the African Union held in ...
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West African countries working together to develop framework to regulate genetically engineered mosquitos: Target Malaria

Anonymous,  Global News,  2021.
Abdoulaye Diabaté, principal investigator for Target Malaria, says West African countries like Burkina Faso, Mali and Benin are working with the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) to develop a pan-West African framework to regulate gene drive mosquitos.
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Potential use of gene drive modified insects against disease vectors, agricultural pests and invasive species poses new challenges for risk assessment

Y. Devos, J. D. Mumford, M. B. Bonsall, A. M. Camargo, L. G. Firbank, D. C. M. Glandorf, F. Nogué, K. Paraskevopoulos and E. A. Wimmer,  Critical Reviews in Biotechnology,  2021.
Potential future application of engineered gene drives (GDs), which bias their own inheritance and can spread genetic modifications in wild target populations, has sparked both enthusiasm and concern. Engineered GDs in insects could potentially be used to address long-standing ...
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‘Nigeria has capacity for safe application of modern biotechnology’

M. Adewale,  The Guardian,  2021.
Director-general of the National Biosafety Management Agency (NBMA), Dr. Rufus Ebegba, has declared that Nigeria has the capacity to deploy safe biotechnology products for agricultural development and environmental safety. Ebegba, who gave the assurance at the opening of a ...
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European Parliament calls for ban on gene drive technology

Save Our Seeds,  Save Our Seeds,  2021.
The European Parliament yesterday confirmedi it‘s precautionary stance towards the use of a new genetic engineering technology called gene drive. In its report on the EU’s Biodiversity Strategy for 2030, adopted at the European Parliament’s plenary on 08.06.2021, ...
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Living With the Limits of Our New Clerisy’s Knowledge

R. Fernandez,  PJ Media,  2021.
We are living in a strange time when reason has fallen short of human expectations and there is, once again, pressure to place our trust in faith. Leighton Woodhouse hit the nail on the head when he argued that we have appointed a New Clerisy to rule over us, not because they are ...
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African Experts Welcome WHO Guidance on Ethics, Standards, and Governance of Genetically Modified Mosquito Research

E. Nakkazi,  Health Policy Watch,  2021.
Researchers engaged in mosquito gene drive technologies are optimistic that new World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on best research practices will ensure that their work is safe and ethical. Such guidance also helps research results advance from laboratories to be used in ...
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What is wrong in extinguishing a species? Charting the Ethical Challenges of using Gene-Drive Technologies to eradicate A. gambiae vector populations

M. Annoni and T. Pievani,  Biolaw Journal-Rivista Di Biodiritto,  2021.
This article analyses three ethical arguments against the use of gene-drive technologies to control for, and possibly extinguish, a particular species of vector mosquitoes (Anopheles gambiae) causing the malaria infection. We conclude that none of these arguments is truly ...
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WHO releases new guidance for deployment of genetically modified mosquitoes

E. Henderson,  News Medical Life Sciences,  2021.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has released new guidance for the deployment of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes to combat vector-borne diseases like malaria and dengue. GM mosquitoes may carry a gene that kills female progeny and the technology can be used against the ...
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Q&A: WHO updates guidance on testing genetically modified mosquitoes

E. N. Dreisbach,  Healio,  2021.
Researchers have been exploring the use of genetically modified mosquitos as a potential control method for vector-borne diseases. Just last month, Oxitec began releasing its genetically modified (GM), self-limiting male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the Florida Keys in the hope of ...
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Why the EU should back research into gene drive – even if Europe never uses it

R. Müller,  The Brussels Times,  2021.
As the EU’s Biodiversity Strategy reaches the European Parliament, it has reopened a worrying debate about research into gene drive technology, a tool which could pave the way for biasing the inheritance of desired genetic traits through targeted species. Advances in this kind ...
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Genetically modified mosquitoes; WHO issues new guidance for research

DTE Staff,  Down To Earth,  2021.
Genetically-modified mosquitoes or GMMs have been used across the world to control mosquitoes. GMMs have been able to bring down the population of the Aedes aegypti by 90 per cent in countries like Brazil, the Cayman Islands, Panama and Malaysia. But there have never been any ...
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WHO issues new guidance for research on genetically modified mosquitoes to fight malaria and other vector-borne diseases

WHO,  reliefweb,  2021.
New guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) sets essential standards to inform future research and development on genetically modified mosquitoes, particularly in addressing issues relating to ethics, safety, affordability and effectiveness. Malaria and other ...
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Guidance framework for testing of genetically modified mosquitoes, second edition

WHO,  WHO-TDR,  2021.
For more than 2 decades, scientists have been working to harness the promise of molecular biology to develop genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) for use as public health tools to prevent the transmission of vector-borne diseases. Responding to a need for additional standards ...
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The legal regulation of gene drive technologies

C. Elves,  Univeristy of Oxford,  2021.
Gene drive technologies purport to provide a panacea and yet in doing so present unprecedented risks that threaten to change, potentially irreversibly, the way in which we live in the world. Gene drive technologies raise questions about what ends societies ought to seek for their ...
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Driving genetic destruction

Anonymous,  Alliance for Natural Health,  2021.
Genetically-engineered (GE) mosquitoes have been released in a number of countries, including the US. We’ve known for some time that these experiments have not gone to plan, but a new paper provides a better understanding of how they’ve went awry, and provides a harrowing ...
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Selection of Sites for Field Trials of Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes with Gene Drive

G. C. Lanzaro, M. Campos, M. Crepeau, A. Cornel, A. Estrada, H. Gripkey, Z. Haddad, A. Kormos, S. Palomares and W. Sharpee,  bioRxiv,  2021.04.28.441877. 2021.
Novel malaria control strategies using genetically engineered mosquitoes (GEMs) are on the horizon. Population modification is one approach wherein mosquitoes are engineered with genes rendering them refractory to the malaria parasite coupled with a low-threshold, Cas9-based gene ...
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Fighting mosquitoes with mosquitoes

W. Feng,  The Daily Targum,  2021.
When you think about the animal that has killed the greatest number of humans in the world, you generally tend to think of large predators. Is it perhaps the great white shark or maybe the cute but deadly hippopotamus? While these animals are certainly deadly, the number of ...
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CRISPR-Cas and Its Wide-Ranging Applications: From Human Genome Editing to Environmental Implications, Technical Limitations, Hazards and Bioethical Issues

R. Piergentili, A. Del Rio, F. Signore, F. U. Ronchi, E. Marinelli and S. Zaami,  Cells,  10:24. 2021.
The CRISPR-Cas system is a powerful tool for in vivo editing the genome of most organisms, including man. During the years this technique has been applied in several fields, such as agriculture for crop upgrade and breeding including the creation of allergy-free foods, for ...
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US Gene Drive Governance: A Special Feature in Health Security

L. Warmbrod, A. Kobokovich, R. West, G. K. Gronvall and M. Montague,  Health Security,  19:131-132. 2021.
The novel potential of gene drives and related genetic pest control measures highlights a gap in the oversight of products using such technologies in the United States. The US Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology, as applied by US Environmental Protection Agency, ...
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Systematic identification of plausible pathways to potential harm via problem formulation for investigational releases of a population suppression gene drive to control the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in West Africa

J. B. Connolly, J. D. Mumford, S. Fuchs, G. Turner, C. Beech, A. R. North and A. Burt,  Malaria Journal,  20:170. 2021.
Population suppression gene drive has been proposed as a strategy for malaria vector control. A CRISPR-Cas9-based transgene homing at the doublesex locus (dsxFCRISPRh) has recently been shown to increase rapidly in frequency in, and suppress, caged laboratory populations of the ...
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Quantifying the risk of vector-borne disease transmission attributable to genetically modified vectors

G. R. Hosack, A. Ickowicz and K. R. Hayes,  Royal Society Open Science,  8:201525. 2021.
The relative risk of disease transmission caused by the potential release of transgenic vectors, such as through sterile insect technique or gene drive systems, is assessed with comparison with wild-type vectors. The probabilistic risk framework is demonstrated with an assessment ...
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Commercial Release of Genetically Modified Crops in Africa: Interface Between Biosafety Regulatory Systems and Varietal Release Systems

O. Akinbo, S. Obukosia, J. Ouedraogo, W. Sinebo, M. Savadogo, S. Timpo, R. Mbabazi, K. Maredia, D. Makinde and A. Ambali,  Frontier in Plant Sciences,  12. 2021.
African countries face key challenges in the deployment of GM crops due to incongruities in the processes for effective and efficient commercial release while simultaneously ensuring food and environmental safety. Against the backdrop of the preceding scenario, and for the ...
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Differentiated impacts of human interventions on nature: Scaling the conversation on regulation of gene technologies

J. A. Heinemann, D. J. Paull, S. Walker and B. Kurenbach,  Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene,  9. 2021.
Biotechnology describes a range of human activities in medicine, agriculture, and environmental management. One biotechnology in particular, gene technology, continues to evolve both in capacity and potential to benefit and harm society. The purpose of this article is to offer a ...
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The science & ethics of gene drive technology from a conservation & development perspective

Renew Europe,  Renew Europe,  2021.
This hearing intends to examine gene-drive technology and its possible impacts, including unintended ones and reveal the complexity of an unknown technology with inherent uncertainties. Scientists from different backgrounds in the field of gene-drive research will present most ...
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Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment of Gene Drives

Hector Quemada and David O'Brochta,  ,  2021.
Unlike non-gene drive organisms, which can be limited in time and space and therefore provide data in small scale tests that can be relevant to large scale releases, the potential for large-scale spread from a limited release, even in well-isolated trials, means that reliance on ...
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GeneConvene Webinar Series on: Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment of Gene Drives

Hector Quemada and David O'Brochta,  ,  2021.
Unlike non-gene drive organisms, which can be limited in time and space and therefore provide data in small scale tests that can be relevant to large scale releases, the potential for large-scale spread from a limited release, even in well-isolated trials, means that reliance on ...
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Emergent challenges for CRISPR: biosafety, biosecurity, patenting, and regulatory issues

Braddick, D. , and Ramarohetra, R. F.,  Genome Engineering Via Crispr-Cas9 System,  2021.
The recent advancements of CRISPR-Cas technologies have transformed this simple and efficient gene editing technique into an extraordinarily powerful tool. The most anticipated applications could create novel therapeutics against mankind's most serious afflictions and help ...
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Les Européens très critiques vis-à-vis du forçage génétique

L. Duboua-Lorsch,  EURACTIV,  2021.
Cette technique, qui vise à éradiquer ou modifier certaines espèces dites nuisibles, sera au cœur des négociations cette année, alors que se profile la COP15 sur la biodiversité. maginez un monde débarrassé d’insectes porteurs de maladies, de parasites agricoles, ...
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GENE DRIVE ACCEPTANCE SURVEY

YouGov,  Pollinis,  2021.
This representative survey was conducted by the international market research institute YouGov and polled 8.826 citizens from 8 EU countries in December 2020. It was commissioned by WeMove Europe, Save Our Seeds (Germany), Skiftet (Sweden), France Nature Environnement (FNE) ...
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Demystifying the Risk Assessment Process for Laboratory-Based Experiments Utilizing Invasive Genetic Elements: It Is More Than Gene Drive

Z. N. Adelman,  Applied Biosafety,  2021.
Advances in recombinant DNA approaches have resulted in the development of transgene architectures that severely bias their own inheritance, a process commonly referred to as ?gene drive.? The rapid pace of development, combined with the complexity of many gene drive approaches, ...
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Next-generation tools to control biting midge populations and reduce pathogen transmission

P. Shults, L. W. Cohnstaedt, Z. N. Adelman and C. Brelsfoard,  Parasites and Vectors,  14:31. 2021.
Biting midges of the genus Culicoides transmit disease-causing agents resulting in a significant economic impact on livestock industries in many parts of the world. Localized control efforts, such as removal of larval habitat or pesticide application, can be logistically ...
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Conservation pest control with new technologies: public perceptions

E. A. MacDonald, M. B. Neff, E. Edwards, F. Medvecky and J. Balanovic,  Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand,  2021.
We conducted eleven focus groups in New Zealand to explore three questions about novel technologies (gene drive and two others for comparison of pest control tools): (1) what are the risks/benefits? (2) how do they compare to current methods? and (3) who should be represented on ...
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New GE unintentionally leaves traces in cells

C. Then,  Testbiotech,  2020.
A new scientific publication shows that CRISPR/Cas gene scissor applications in animals unintentionally leave traces. The findings are not related to unintended changes in the DNA, which have often been described, but to gene regulation, i.e. epigenetics. The effects are ...
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Core commitments for field trials of gene drive organisms

K. C. Long, L. Alphey, G. J. Annas, C. S. Bloss, K. J. Campbell, J. Champer, C.-H. Chen, A. Choudhary, G. M. Church, J. P. Collins, K. L. Cooper, J. A. Delborne, O. R. Edwards, C. I. Emerson, K. Esvelt, S. W. Evans, R. M. Friedman, V. M. Gantz, F. Gould,,  Science,  370:1417-1419. 2020.
While field trials of gene drive organisms (GDOs) ultimately will depend on public policy decisions, those engaged in GDO work can play critical roles in support of these decisions by generating evidence and developing evaluation strategies in fair and effective partnerships with ...
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Scientists paved the way for field trials of gene-driven organisms

K. Winslet,  FLORIDA News Times,  2020.
The recent rise of gene drive research, accelerated by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology, has brought about a wave of transformation throughout science.Developed with selected traits that have been genetically engineered to spread throughout the population, Gene Drive ...
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Technical Support to Burkina Faso on Gene Drive Stage 2 Dossier Review

AUDA-NEPAD,  AUDA-NEPAD,  2020.
AUDA-NEPAD in partnership with the National Biosafety Agency (ANB) in Burkina Faso organised a training workshop to support to the National Biosafety Committee (NBC) on stage 2 dossier review, on December 3 – 5, 2020, in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. In addition to the NBC ...
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Gene Drive-Modified Organisms: Developing Practical Risk Assessment Guidance

Y. Devos, M. B. Bonsall, L. G. Firbank, J. Mumford, F. Nogué and E. A. Wimmer,  Trends in Biotechnology,  2020.
Risk assessors, risk managers, developers, potential applicants, and other stakeholders at many levels discuss the need for new or further risk assessment guidance for deliberate environmental releases of gene drive-modified organisms. However, preparing useful and practical ...
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Scientists Set a Path for Field Trials of Gene Drive Organisms

M. Aguilera,  UC San Diego News Center,  2020.
The modern rise of gene drive research, accelerated by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology, has led to transformational waves rippling across science. Gene drive organisms (GDOs), developed with select traits that are genetically engineered to spread through a population, have ...
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Burkina Faso Stakeholders consultations on Gene Drive Technology for integrated vector management towards malaria elimination

AUDA-NEPAD,  AUDA-NEPAD,  2020.
Under its flagship Integrated Vector Management (IVM) Programme, African Union Development Agency (AUDA-NEPAD) in partnership with the National biosafety agency (ANB) of Burkina Faso organized an information sharing workshop on the applications of "Gene Drive" technology and ...
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A Gene Drive Could Wipe Out Mosquitoes. But What If We Want To Turn It Off?

A. Winkler,  freethink,  2020.
Gene drives are powerful tools: they allow scientists to hack how animals pass down genes to their offspring. They could allow us to wipe out malaria-carrying mosquitoes, preserve endangered species, or fight off crop-eating pests. But once it's out in the wild, a gene drive ...
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Evaluating Gene Drive Approaches for Public Benefit

M. R. Santos,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
Gene drive approaches—those which bias inheritance of a genetic element in a population of sexually reproducing organisms—have the potential to provide important public benefits. The spread of selected genetic elements in wild populations of organisms may help address certain ...
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Engineered Gene Drives and their Value in the Control of Vector-Borne Diseases, Weeds, Pests, and Invasive Species

K. Hefferon and R. Herring,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
Genetic engineering has created potential for moving medical and agricultural research and application frontiers forward in unprecedented ways. Despite its accepted use as a powerful tool in medical research, genetic modification and genome editing technologies remain ...
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Engineered Gene Drives: Ecological, Environmental, and Societal Concerns

J. Kuzma,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
This chapter overviews the types, purposes, and potential impacts of gene drive organisms (GDOs) and discusses challenges with foreseeing and assessing these impacts prior to their environmental release. It concludes with a few examples of risk analysis methods and governance ...
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Genetically Engineered Fish: Potential Impacts on Aquaculture, Biodiversity, and the Environment

R. A. Dunham and B. Su,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
Studies on transgenic fish for the aquaculture industry have focused on improving growth rates, enhancing disease resistance, altering body composition, acting as biological factories for medical proteins, and even altering temperature tolerance and coloration. The future impact ...
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GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes

Chaurasia, Anurag , Hawksworth, David L., Pessoa de Miranda, Manoela.,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
This book covers a broad spectrum of topics related to GMOs and allied new gene-based technologies, biodiversity, and ecosystem processes, bringing together the contributions of researchers and regulators from around the world. The aim is to offer a clear view of the benefits and ...
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FNIH Panel on Gene Drive Regulation Emphasizes Need for Local Community Engagement

C. Rizk,  GenomeWeb,  2020.
Genetically modified organisms are another topic of deep debate, with some activists agitating for and getting governments to implement deep restrictions on modified crops. More recently, GMO crops have started to regain public favor, particularly in countries where boosting the ...
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Further guidance required for assessment of gene drive technology, says EFSA

Euractiv,  The World News Monitor,  2020.
Existing guidelines are adequate for evaluating risks associated with gene-drive modified insects, but further guidance is needed for some areas, most notably for environmental risk assessments. The evaluation was requested to explore the issue ahead of the consideration of any ...
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Mutagenic chain reaction cannot be sufficiently controlled

Christoph Then,  Testbiotech,  2020.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has published the results of its public consultation on the risks of so-called gene drive organisms. Testbiotech accuses the authority of disguising the real dimension of the risks. Gene drives are designed to spread artificial genetic ...
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Outcome of a public consultation on the draft adequacy and sufficiency evaluation of existing EFSA guidelines for the molecular characterisation, environmental risk assessment and post-market environmental monitoring of genetically modified insects containing engineered gene drives

European Food Safety Authority, Y. Devos, M. B. Bonsall, F. Nogué, K. Paraskevopoulos, E. A. Wimmer and L. G. Firbank,  EFSA Supporting Publications,  17:1939E. 2020.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) carried out an online public consultation to receive input from interested parties/persons on the draftscientific opinion on the adequacy and sufficiencyevaluation of existing guidelines for the molecular characterisation (MC), ...
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Gene drives, species, and compassion for individuals in conservation biology

Y. Rohwer,  Ethics, Policy and Environment,  2020.
In this paper I argue that these compassionate conservationists have a moral obligation to support the investigation and development of genetic modification technologies because of their potential to minimize suffering and eliminate killing in conservation. Furthermore, I will ...
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Novel and Exceptional Technology and Research Advisory Committee – NExTRAC -NIH

NIH Office of Science Policy,  National Institutes of Health (NIH),  2020.
NExTRAC provides advice to the Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on matters related to the conduct and oversight of research involving emerging technologies in biomedical science. NExTRAC also makes recommendations on research involving the use of, and ...
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When Extinction is Warranted: Invasive Species, Suppression-Drives, and the Worst-Case Scenario

A. C. Thresher,  Ethics, Policy and Environment,  2020.
The focus of this paper is on one such risk ? the danger of a suppression-drive escaping containment and wiping out the target species globally. Here, I argue that in most cases this risk is significant enough to warrant holding off on the technology. In some cases, however, we ...
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Brave New Planet: Reshaping Nature Through Gene Drives

E. Lander,  Brave New Planet,  2020.
A new technology, called gene drives, has the power to spread any genetic instructions you wish across an entire animal or plant species in the wild. It might let us restore ecosystems ravaged by invasive species, or help species adapt to climate change. And, it might save ...
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The ethical way to alter organisms

K. Esvelt,  Boston Globe,  2020.
As my colleagues and I first described in 2014, we can use CRISPR genome editing to duplicate the most powerful form of “gene drive,” a ubiquitous natural phenomenon that happens when a genetic change is inherited more frequently than usual. Encode the CRISPR machinery next ...
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Gene Drives: A Controversial Tool to Fight Malaria

H. Albert,  LABIOTECH.eu,  2020.
The possibility of creating gene drives was introduced into the scientific community in 2003 by Austin Burt, a professor at Imperial College London. Burt was studying ‘selfish genes’ that can copy themselves into a specific target DNA sequence. He suggested that these genes, ...
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Advances in genetic engineering test democracy’s capacity for good decision-making

N. Kofler and R. Taitingfong,  Boston Globe,  2020.
New advances in genetic engineering and their application for environmental conservation and public health are further testing our democracy’s capacity for good decision-making. With minimal public input, the Environmental Protection Agency recently approved the release of ...
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Inauguration and first meeting of WA-IVM Technical Working Groups

AUDA-NEPAD,  AUDA-NEPAD News,  2020.
African Union Development Agency – NEPAD (AUDA-NEPAD) in collaboration with the West Africa Health Organization (WAHO), the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Environment in Cote d’Ivoire, organized the inaugural meeting of WA-IVM Technical Working Groups (TWGs) from 24 ...
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Engineered Gene Drives: Policy and Regulatory Considerations Webinar Series by The GeneConvene Global Collaborative October-December 2020

Hector Quemada and David O'Brochta,  GeneConvene Global Collaborative,  2020.
In this series of webinars the regulatory and policy challenges of moving new innovative genetic biocontrol products such as gene drive technologies to the field will be featured. Each seminar will be ~60 minutes in length followed by questions and answers.
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WHO Refers to GM Mosquitoes as Beneficial Technology

ISAAA,  Crop Biotech Update,  2020.
The World Health Organization (WHO) released its official statement to clarify its stance on the evaluation and use of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes and its use to control vector-borne diseases (VBD). WHO says it supports the investigation of all potentially beneficial ...
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Position of ARRIGE Scientific Committee on Gene Drive

ARRIGE Scientific Committee on Gene Drive,  ARRIGE Newsletter,  2020.
We are facing a change of paradigm that must lead us to be responsible for altered inheritance and the hybridization between artefacts, considered as natural or artificial, at the very moment when this division itself is blurred by the engineering capacity to act on mutations, ...
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Gene Drives – Mit gentechnischer Ausrottung Menschen und Natur schützen?

Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung,  Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung,  2020.
Am Beispiel von Gene Drives zur Malariabekämpfung soll in diesem Online-Seminar aufgezeigt werden, wie die Technologie funktioniert, wer sie entwickelt, finanziert und ihre Anwendung vorantreibt, welche Risiken sie birgt, wie in betroffenen Ländern darüber diskutiert und warum ...
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WHO Releases a Position Statement on Genetically Modified Mosquitoes for the Control of Vector-Borne Diseases

E. R. Fletcher,  Health Policy Watch,  2020.
WHO announced their support for the continued investigation into genetically modified mosquitoes as an alternative to existing interventions to reduce or prevent vector-borne diseases.
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Ethics and vector-borne diseases

WHO,  WHO Guidance,  2020.
The guidance was developed by an international group of experts in vector control, infectious disease ethics, maternal and child health, ecology and climate change, research and vaccine development, and public health communication. It examines a broad range of ethical ...
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ESA Position Statement on the Importance of Continued Innovation in Gene Drive Technology

Entomological Society of America,  Annals of the Entomological Society of America,  2020.
The risks and benefits of GDTs should be considered with the risks and benefits of continuing current pest control interventions, which may be comparatively less effective or pose exposure risks to human health and the environment.
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GeneConvene Global Collaborative Webinar Series Oct-Dec 2020

Hector Quemada and David O'Brochta,  GeneConvene Global Collaborative,  2020.
This is series of webinars the regulatory and policy challenges of moving new innovative genetic biocontrol products such as gene drive technologies to the field will be featured.
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Evaluation of genetically modified mosquitoes for the control of vector-borne diseases

Global Malaria Programme,  WHO - Position Statement,  2020.
In the spirit of fostering innovation, WHO takes the position that all potentially beneficial new technologies, including GMMs, should be investigated to determine whether they could be useful in the continued fight against diseases of public health concern. Such research should ...
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Embracing Dynamic Models for Gene Drive Management

A. J. Golnar, E. Ruell, A. L. Lloyd and K. M. Pepin,  Trends in Biotechnology,  2020.
We describe how quantitative tools can reduce risk uncertainty, streamline empirical research, guide risk management, and promote cross-sector collaboration throughout the process of gene drive technology development and implementation.
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Do Africans Want Genetically Modified Mosquitoes?

U. Effiong,  The Pursuit,  2020.
The recent publication by fellow Nigerian scientists—Patricia Okorie and colleagues—originally drew my attention to the issue of GMMs.
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Gene Drive: Modern Miracle or Environmental Disaster

K. Brooks,  Journal of Law, Technology and Policy,  2020.
This Note will show how gene drive technology fits imperfectly into the old regulatory framework through case studies. The Analysis will also describe how the different regulatory agencies handle similar gene drive-like organisms inconsistently, and the inherent danger of this ...
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Gene drives: Navigating perils of engineered eradication, with Christoph Then.

IEAM Podcast,  Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management,  2020.
Imagine a world without natural enemies like parasites or deadly pathogens. Where crops grow unfettered by rodent and insect pests. Advances in genetic engineering now hold the possibility to alter genomes at the population level, but is it too good to be true? A critical review ...
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Global citizen deliberation on genome editing

J. S. Dryzek, D. Nicol, S. Niemeyer, S. Pemberton, N. Curato, A. Bächtiger, P. Batterham, B. Bedsted, S. Burall, M. Burgess, G. Burgio, Y. Castelfranchi, H. Chneiweiss, G. Church, M. Crossley, J. de Vries, M. Farooque, M. Hammond, B. He, R. Mendonça, J.,  Science,  369:1435. 2020.
Here we show how, as the global governance vacuum is filled, deliberation by a global citizens' assembly should play a role, for legitimate and effective governance.
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Risks of releasing gene drives mosquitoes – a possible future scenario

Testbiotech,  Testbiotech,  2020.
Genetically engineering the genome of an organism with gene drive means that it will be replicated in every following generation. This allows the altered gene to spread rapidly throughout natural populations, which may be decimated or even eradicated. The video contains both ...
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Why the UK could end up deploying risky gene drives while ignoring natural biological control

J. Mathews,  GM Watch,  2020.
First they cloned Dolly the sheep. Now they’re targeting grey squirrels
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Scientists Evaluate Environmental Impacts of Gene Drive Organisms

Staff,  American Laboratory,  2020.
Researcher Marion Dolezel, from the Environment Agency Austria, and a team of international scientists published in the open-access journal BioRisk, discuss the potential risks and impacts on the environment.
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Responsible innovation in biotechnology: Stakeholder attitudes and implications for research policy

P. Roberts, J. Herkert and J. Kuzma,  Elementa,  2020.
Using a mixed methods approach, we analyzed the attitudes of different biotechnology stakeholders, particularly those working in areas related to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture and the environment, towards the principles and practices of RI. Homogenous focus ...
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Governing New Biotechnologies for Biodiversity Conservation: Gene Drives, International Law, and Emerging Politics

J. L. Reynolds,  Global Environmental Politics,  20:28-48. 2020.
This article describes and analyzes the international law and politics of gene drives’ research, development, and possible use, with an emphasis on their potential biodiversity applications.
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Incorporating Characteristics of Gene Drive Engineered Ae. aegypti as Methods to Reduce Dengue and Zika Virus into the Bayesian Network – Relative Risk Model, Using Ponce, Puerto Rico as a Case Study

S. R. Eikenbary,  WWU Graduate School Collection,  2020.
The Bayesian network relative risk model can perform the risk assessment of gene drive engineered Ae. aegypti for vector control and as part of an adaptive management strategy to reduce dengue and Zika transmission. This study illustrates how the BN-RRM can integrate gene drive ...
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Global Governing Bodies: A Pathway for Gene Drive Governance for Vector Mosquito Control

A. Kelsey, D. Stillinger, T. B. Pham, J. Murphy, S. Firth and R. Carballar-Lejarazú,  American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene,  2020.
We examined the current institutions and governing bodies among various continents that could have an impact on gene drive governance or the potential to adapt to its future use. Possible governance strategies also are proposed that seek to bridge gaps and promote an ethically ...
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Exploring gene drive’s role in fight against malaria

J. Conrow,  Genetic Literacy Project,  2020.
J. Conrow (2020) Genetic Literacy Project. An international initiative has formed to ensure that gene drive technology gets a chance to prove its mettle in the quest to control malaria.
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Lettre ouverte a Monsieur le Premier Ministre demandant l’interdiction de la production, de l’utilisation et de la dissémination de tout OGM issu du forçage génétique

A. Bossu, N. Laarman, D. Houdebine, H. Le Meur, F. Jacquemart and F. Warlop,  Open Letter,  2020.
A. Bossu, N. Laarman, D. Houdebine, H. Le Meur, F. Jacquemart and F. Warlop (2020). Open Letter. An open letter from French civil society organizations urging the French Parliament to support a resolution at the upcoming Convention on Biodiversity that would call for a ...
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Release of genetically modified mosquitoes in the Florida Keys put on hold

D. Goodhue,  Miami Herald,  2020.
Opponents of a plan to release millions of genetically modified mosquitoes in the Florida Keys landed a temporary win on Tuesday.
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Providing a policy framework for responsible gene drive research: an analysis of the existing governance landscape and priority areas for further research

D. Thizy, I. Coche and J. de Vries,  Wellcome Open Research,  2020.
D. Thizy, I. Coche and J. de Vries (2020). Wellcome Open Research. doi: 10.12688/wellcomeopenres.16023.1 In this manuscript, we review the existing regulatory landscape around gene drive research and map areas of convergence and divergence, as well as gaps in relation to ...
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EPA approves field trials of genetically modified mosquito

A. Wernick,  WBFO npr,  2020.
The Environmental Protection Agency has given biotech company Oxitec the go-ahead to test the effectiveness of genetically modified mosquitoes in parts of Florida and Texas. Oxitec has been developing genetically modified mosquitoes in hopes of reducing local populations of ...
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Genome Editing in Food and Farming: Risks and unexpected consequences

J. Cotter and D. Perls,  Canadian Biotechnology Action Network,  2020.
J. Cotter and D. Perls (2020). Canadian Biotechnology Action Network. In this report, we provide an overview of genome editing techniques being explored in agriculture, and the range of potential unexpected effects that can arise from them. The report draws on recent scientific ...
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Genome Editing 2020: Ethics and Human Rights in Germline Editing in Humans and Gene Drives in Mosquitoes

G. J. Annas,  American Journal of Law and Medicine,  46:143-165. 2020.
G. J. Annas (2020). American Journal of Law and Medicine. doi: 10.1177/0098858820933492. I begin with a discussion of so far disastrously unsuccessful attempts to regulate germline editing in humans, including a summary of the first application of germline genome editing in ...
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CSOs raise alarm over genetically-engineered mosquitoes in Nigeria

A. Oboh,  Vanguard,  2020.
No fewer than 75 civil society organisations, CSOs, across the world have raised the alarm over moves to release genetically-modified mosquitoes in Nigeria, noting that the country was about to be used as a guinea pig for the project, which will endanger humans, biodiversity and ...
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Groups warn against release of genetically-engineered mosquitoes in Nigeria

C. Onyesi,  Daily Post,  2020.
C. Onyesi (2020). Daily Post. Over 75 Civil Society Organizations from Nigeria, Africa and the world have condemned moves to open the way for the release of genetically modified mosquitoes in Nigeria.
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Malaria: Over 75 CSOs raise alarm over plans to release nautically engineered mosquitoes

News Agency of Nigeria,  WorldStage,  2020.
Mre than 75 Environmental Civil Society Organisations from Nigeria, Africa and other countries have condemned moves to open way for release of genetically modified mosquitoes to control malaria infection. The News Agency of Nigeria (NAN), reports that at a virtual meeting of ...
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NGOs call for moratorium on controversial ‘gene drive organisms’

N. Foote,  EURACTIV,  2020.
https://borgenproject.org/3-innovative-technologies-stopping-malaria/
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Nigerian government restates commitment to safety in applying modern biotechnology

Agencies,  today ng,  2020.
The National Biosafety Management Agency (NBMA) has reiterated its commitment to ensure the safety of the public while applying modern biotechnology to boost food security and economic development of citizens. Dr Rufus Ebegba, Director-General, NBMA, gave the assurance at a ...
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Soon we’ll be able to engineer the wild, can the policies keep up with the science?

M. Montague and A. Kobokovich,  The Hill,  2020.
Humans have been able to genetically alter the world around them for thousands of years. With the domestication of dogs at least 14,000 years ago, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been a constant feature of human society; only recently have we gained the ability to ...
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Who is afraid of genetically modified mosquitoes?

G. Odogwu,  The PUNCH,  2020.
Genetically Modified Organisms have raised concerns in our clime, the same way they have in other countries of the world – where a clear line is drawn between the pro and the anti-GMO citizens. Nonetheless, this modern biotechnological technique is still at its infancy here. As ...
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Mosquito district workshop focuses on Keys trials

S. Matthis,  KEYSWEEKLY,  2020.
Now that the Oxitec “Friendly Mosquito” trials have been approved by the federal and state governments, it’s up to the Florida Keys Mosquito Control District to decide if, when and where to embrace the technology said to decrease the chances of mosquito-borne diseases such ...
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Genetically modified mosquitoes to be released in Florida and Texas

O. Ron,  The Jerusalem Post,  2020.
A plan to release 750 million genetically modified mosquitoes in Florida and Texas has been approved, The Guardian reported. According to the plan, the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes will be released into the wild, as they contain a special protein that would kill female offspring, ...
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Before genetically modified mosquitoes are released, we need a better EPA

N. Kofler and J. Kuzma,  The Boston Globe,  2020.
While the attention of the American public has rightfully been focused on the COVID-19 pandemic, its associated racial disparities, and broader issues of structural racism, the US government made a serious public health decision — one that could affect our health and our ...
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Are Genetically Modified Mosquitoes Coming To Florida?

M. Taylor,  Y100,  2020.
I'm not even going to lie, mosquitoes should be classified under domestic terrorism. The flying, biting bugs you can barely see wreak havoc on my life every single summer. I'm not sure if I'm allergic to them, but whenever I'm bit by them, that area of my skin swells up. It's the ...
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The Florida Keys are one step closer to getting genetically modified mosquitoes

D. Goodhue,  Miami Herald,  2020.
An international biotech company is one step closer to being able to release genetically modified mosquitoes in the Florida Keys. The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services this week granted Oxitec an experimental use permit to release potentially millions of ...
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Gene drives: benefits, risks, and possible applications

A. Deplazes-Zemp, U. Grossniklaus, F. Lefort, P. Müller, J. Romeis, A. Rüegsegger, N. Schoenenberger and E. Spehn,  Swiss Academies Factsheets,  15. 2020.
Gene drives are genetic elements that skew the pattern of inheritance of a given characteristic in sexually reproducing organisms. They can be used to spread a characteristic that can alter or even reduce the numbers of individuals in wild populations of a certain species. As ...
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Genetically modified mosquitoes could be released in Florida and Texas beginning this summer – silver bullet or jumping the gun?

B. Allan, C. Stone, H. Tuten, J. Kuzma and N. Kofler,  The Conversation,  2020.
On May 1, 2020, the company Oxitec received an experimental use permit from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to release millions of GM mosquitoes (labeled by Oxitec as OX5034) every week over the next two years in Florida and Texas. Females of this mosquito species, Aedes ...
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Position Paper on Integrated Vector Management: Strengthening AU Members’ Regulatory Capacities for Responsible Research Towards Elimination of Malaria in Africa

African Union Development Agency - NEPAD,  AUDA-NEPAD,  2020.
Africa continues to bear a heavy brunt of the malaria which is a disease transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito. Thousands of lives, mostly of young children, are lost every year; which undermines efforts deployed at various levels for increased life expectancy and improved ...
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Gene Drives: Pursuing opportunities, minimizing risk

K. L. Warmbrod, A. Kobokovich, R. West, G. Ray, M. Trotochaud and M. Montague,  Center for Health Security,  2020.
This study analyzed the current state of gene drive technologies, the ways in which they might be deployed in the field, and the state of regulatory policy governing their development.
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EPA Approves Genetically Modified Mosquito Trial For Florida Keys

Nancy Klingener,  WLRN,  2020.
A plan to test genetically modified mosquitoes in the Florida Keys has received approval from the federal government.
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The EU not ready for the release of Gene drive organisms into the environment.

Pensoft Publishers,  ScienceDaily,  2020.
In their study, published in the open-access journal BioRisk, an international group of scientists led by Marion Dolezel from the Environment Agency Austria, discuss the potential risks and impacts on the environment.
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Beyond limits – the pitfalls of global gene drives for environmental risk assessment in the European Union

M. Dolezel, C. Lüthi and H. Gaugitsch,  BioRisk,  15:1-29. 2020.
We evaluate the novel features of GDOs and outline the resulting challenges for the environmental risk assessment.
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EFSA discusses risk assessment of gene drives

C. Then,  Testbiotech,  2020.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) carried out a public consultation on guidance for the risk assessment of so-called gene drives at the request of the EU Commission. At the same time, a new Testbiotech scientific paper was accepted after peer review. The paper shows that ...
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Alternative Techniques and Options for Risk Reduction of Gene Drives

Bernd Giese, Arnim von Gleich and Johannes L. Frieß,  Gene Drives at Tipping Points,  2020.
In this chapter, we analyse and compare different types of gene drives as well as promising alternative approaches that may provide a reduced risk.
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Vulnerability Analysis of Ecological Systems

Carina R. Lalyer, Arnim von gleich, Bernd Giese,  Gene Drives at Tipping Points,  2020.
Vulnerability analysis can be seen as the counterpart to technology characterization. Technology characterisation scrutinises the intervening technology. Vulnerability analyses potentially affected systems. That may be socio-ecological, socio-technical, socio-economic or other ...
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Gene Drives Touching Tipping Points

Brodee Breckling, Arnim von Gleich,,  Gene Drives at Tipping Points,  2020.
Tipping points and tipping elements, phase transitions and similar critical phenomena are widely discussed in scientific as well as socio-economic contexts as components to understand unforeseen far reaching changes and critical transitions from one stage into another in complex ...
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Gene Drives at Tipping Points

Amin von Gleich and Winfried Schroder,  Gene Drives at Tipping Points,  2020.
This open access book reports on a pilot project aiming at collecting information on the socio-ecological risks that could arise in the event of an uncontrolled spread of genetically engineered organisms into the environment. The researchers will, for instance, be taking a closer ...
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Report of the ad hoc technical expert group on risk assessment

Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Risk Assessment,  Convention on Biological Diversity,  2020.
The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol further decided to extend the Online Forum on Risk Assessment and Risk Management to assist the AHTEG and invited submissions of information relevant to the work of the online forum and ...
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GENE DRIVE ORGANISMS: Implications for the environment and nature conservation

M. Dolezel, S. Simon, M. Otto, M. Engelhard and W. Zughart,  Umweltbundesamt,  2020.
Recent advances in biotechnology aim at the genetic modification of wild living populations. Some potential applications consider self-propagating genetic elements to generate gene drive organisms (GDOs), also for nature conservation. Due to the potential of GDOs to spread ...
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Spatio-temporal controllability and environmental risk assessment of genetically engineered gene drive organisms from the perspective of EU GMO Regulation

C. Then, K. Kawall and N. Valenzuela,  Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management,  2020.
Gene drive organisms are a recent development created by using methods of genetic engineering; they inherit genetic constructs that are passed on to future generations with a higher probability than with Mendelian inheritance. There are some specific challenges inherent to the ...
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The value of existing regulatory frameworks for the environmental risk assessment of agricultural pest control using gene drive

J. Romeis, J. Collatz, D. C. M. Glandorf and M. B. Bonsall,  Environmental Science & Policy,  108:19-36. 2020.
The application of (synthetic) gene drives is a powerful tool to control populations of insects that are agricultural pests, vectors of diseases, or a threat to biodiversity potentially leading to the local or global eradication of a species. The potential use of gene drive ...
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Risk assessment challenges of synthetic gene drive organisms

E. Sirinathsinghji,  TWN Biosafety Briefing,  2020.
The development of gene drive organisms (GDOs) is highly controversial, as illustrated by the intense academic, political and societal debates over their potential deployment for a variety of applications from public health to conservation, agriculture and dual-use technologies. ...
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Risk assessment challenges of synthetic gene drive organisms

E. Sirinathsinghji,  TWN Biosafety Briefing,  2020.

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Gene Drives: New and Improved

R. M. Friedman, J. M. Marshall and O. S. Akbari,  Issues in Science and Technology,  36:1-7. 2020.
Our goal here is to describe the various options under development in nontechnical terms for a policy-making audience, review how far along each is, and examine the broader context of how this new suite of technologies compares with other available alternatives. Early engagement ...
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Phased Conditional Approach for Mosquito Management Using Sterile Insect Technique

J. Bouyer, H. Yamada, R. Pereira, K. Bourtzis and M. J. B. Vreysen,  Trends in Parasitology,  2020.
Mosquito-borne diseases represent a major threat to humankind. Recently, the incidence of malaria has stopped decreasing while that of dengue is increasing exponentially. Alternative mosquito-control methods are urgently needed. The sterile insect technique (SIT) has seen ...
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Regulation of GM Organisms for Invasive Species Control

H. J. Mitchell and D. Bartsch,  Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology,  7:1-11. 2020.
Invasive species can cause significant harm to the environment, agriculture, and human health, but there are often very limited tools available to control their populations. Gene drives (GD) have been proposed as a new tool which could be used to control or eliminate such ...
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A cross-sectional survey of biosafety professionals regarding genetically modified insects

O’Brochta, D. A., W. K. Tonui, B. Dass and S. James,  Applied Biosafety,  2019:1-9. 2019.
Background:Genetic technologies such as gene editing and gene drive create challenges for existing frameworks used to assess risk and make regulatory determinations by governments and institutions. Insect genetic technologies including transgenics, gene editing, and gene drive ...
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Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporodia: Plasmodiidae) and O’nyong-nyong virus development in a transgenic Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) strain

Mumford, J. D., C. A. Long, S. C. Weaver, K. Miura, E. Wang, R. Rotenberry, E. M. Dotson and M. Q. Benedict,  " Journal of Medical Entomology,  56:936-941. 2019.
ransgenic Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes have been developed that confer sexual sterility on males that carry a transgene encoding a protein which cuts ribosomal DNA. A relevant risk concern with transgenic mosquitoes is that their capacity to transmit ...
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An Initial Framework for the Environmental Risk Assessment of Synthetic Biology-Derived Organisms with a Focus on Gene Drives.

W. G. Landis, E. A. Brown and S. Eikenbary,  Synthetic Biology 2020: Frontiers in Risk Analysis and Governance. Risk, Systems and Decisions.,  2019.
We apply the structure of source-stressor-habitat-effect-impact pathway derived from the relative risk model (Landis and Wiegers 2005) and as was demonstrated to be applicable in the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) 2016 report Gene Drives on the ...
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Gene Drives: Dynamics and Regulatory Matters-A Report from the Workshop “Evaluation of Spatial and Temporal Control of Gene Drives,” April 4-5, 2019, Vienna

B. Giese, J. L. Friess, N. H. Barton, P. W. Messer, F. Debarre, M. F. Schetelig, N. Windbichler, H. Meimberg and C. Boete,  Bioessays,  41:3. 2019.
Gene Drives are regarded as future tools with a high potential for population control. Due to their inherent ability to overcome the rules of Mendelian inheritance, gene drives (GD) may spread genes rapidly through populations of sexually reproducing organisms. A release of ...
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Gene Drive Mosquitoes: Ethics, Environment and Efficacy

L. Wilburn,  ScienceInnovationUnion,  2019.
The Bill and Melinda Gates foundation has recently donated over $75 million to fund gene drive mosquito research by Target Malaria , a consortium that aims to develop technology for malaria control. The first planned release of gene drive mosquitoes is set to happen over the next ...
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Guidance for IBCs: Regulatory requirements for contained research with GMOs containing engineered gene drives

Office of the Gene Technology Regulator,  Australian Government, Department of Health,  2019.
This document provides guidance for Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBCs) and researchers on the regulatory requirements for organisms containing engineered ‘gene drives’, including the physical containment (PC) level of facilities for notifiable low risk dealings ...
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Autonomy of Nations and Indigenous Peoples and the Environmental Release of Genetically Engineered Animals with Gene Drives

Z. Meghani,  Global Policy,  10:554-568. 2019.
This article contends that the environmental release of genetically engineered (GE) animals with heritable traits that are patented will present a challenge to the efforts of nations and indigenous peoples to engage in self-determination. The environmental release of such animals ...
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Gene Drives in Africa: Civil Society Speaks Out

African Centre for Biodiversity,  African Centre for Biodiversity,  2019.
On Monday 1st July 2019, Target Malaria announced the release of genetically modified (GM) sterile male mosquitoes in Bana, a village in Burkina Faso – the first GM insect to be released in Africa. This is Phase I – by Phase III, Target Malaria aims to release gene drive ...
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Synthetic Biology and the United Nations

H.-E. Lai, C. Canavan, L. Cameron, S. Moore, M. Danchenko, T. Kuiken, Z. Sekeyová and P. S. Freemont,  Trends in Biotechnology,  37:1146-1151. 2019.
Synthetic biology is a rapidly emerging interdisciplinary field of science and engineering that aims to redesign living systems through reprogramming genetic information. The field has catalysed global debate among policymakers and publics. Here we describe how synthetic biology ...
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Gene drives and the international biodiversity regime

F. Rabitz,  Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law,  2019.
Gene drives are genetic modifications designed for rapidly diffusing traits throughout a target population. They are currently being proposed as biological control agents to combat, for instance, invasive alien species and disease vectors. They also raise concerns regarding their ...
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Identification of fk-1;, a Meiotic Driver Undergoing RNA Editing in Neurospora

N. A. Rhoades, A. M. Harvey, D. A. Samarajeewa, J. Svedberg, A. Yusifov, A. Abusharekh, P. Manitchotpisit, D. W. Brown, K. J. Sharp, D. G. Rehard, J. Peters, X. Ostolaza-Maldonado, J. Stephenson, P. K. T. Shiu, H. Johannesson and T. M. Hammond,  Genetics,  212:93. 2019.
These findings indicate that unedited and edited rfk-1 transcripts exist and that these transcripts could have different roles with respect to the mechanism of meiotic drive by spore killing. Regardless of RNA editing, spore killing only succeeds if rfk-1 transcripts avoid ...
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The EU regulatory framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

Bruetschy, C,  Transgenic Research,  28:169-174. 2019.
The European Union (EU) legislation on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) aims to ensure a high level of protection for human, animal and environmental health and a well-functioning EU internal market. The framework regulates the release of GMOs into the environment and their ...
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Gene drives as a new quality in GMO releases-a comparative technology characterization

Friess, JLvG, A.; Giese, B.,  Peerj,  7:e6793. 2019.
Compared to previous releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) which were primarily plants, gene drives represent a paradigm shift in the handling of GMOs: Current regulation of the release of GMOs assumes that for specific periods of time a certain amount of GMOs will be ...
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Problem formulation for gene drive mosquitoes designed to reduce malaria transmission in Africa: results from four regional consultations 2016–2018

Teem, JLA, Aggrey; Glover, Barbara; Ouedraogo, Jeremy; Makinde, Diran; Roberts, Andrew,  Malaria Journal,  18:347. 2019.
Gene drive mosquitoes have been proposed as a possible means to reduce the transmission of malaria in Africa. Because this technology has no prior use-history at this time, environmental risk assessments for gene drive mosquitoes will benefit from problem formulation—an ...
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Using problem formulation for fit-for-purpose pre-market environmental risk assessments of regulated stressors

Devos, YC, W.; Devlin, R. H.; Ippolito, A.; Leggatt, R. A.; Romeis, J.; Shaw, R.; Svendsen, C.; Topping, C. J.,  EFSA Journal,  17:e170708. 2019.
Pre-market/prospective environmental risk assessments (ERAs) contribute to risk analyses performed to facilitate decisions about the market introduction of regulated stressors. Robust ERAs begin with an explicit problem formulation, which involves among other steps: (1) formally ...
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Informed consent and community engagement in open field research: lessons for gene drive science

Singh, JA,  BMC Medical Ethics,  20:54. 2019.
The development of the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system has generated new possibilities for the use of gene drive constructs to reduce or suppress mosquito populations to levels that do not support disease transmission. Despite this prospect, social resistance to genetically ...
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Two minutes to midnight-what international law can do about genome editing

Lee, TL,  Asian Journal of Wto & International Health Law and Policy,  14:227-265. 2019.
With its ability to transform the ecosystem, gene drives, a powerful genome-editing technology, poses nuanced regulatory challenges. In particular, as gene drives can override the normal rule of inheritance, where the impacts of gene-drive modified organisms on the environment ...
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Genetic frontiers for conservation: An assessment of synthetic biology and biodiversity conservation

K. H. Redford, T. Brooks, M., B. W. Nicholas and J. S. A. Macfarlane,  International Union for Conservation of Nature,  2019.
This assessment is the beginning of a process that will lead to the development of an IUCN policy to guide the Union’s Director General, Commissions, and Members. The draft policy will be discussed in many fora before it is brought to vote at the World Conservation Congress in ...
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An introduction to the proceedings of the environmental release of engineered pests: Building an international governance framewor

Brown, Z. S., L. Carter and F. Gould,  BMC Proceedings,  12:10. 2018.
In October 2016, a two-day meeting of 65 academic, government and industry professionals was held at North Carolina State University for early-stage discussions about the international governance of gene drives: potentially powerful new technologies that can be used for the ...
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Means and ends of effective global risk assessments for genetic pest management

Turner, G., C. Beech and L. Roda,  BMC Proceedings,  12:13. 2018.
The development and use of genetic technologies is regulated by countries according to their national laws and governance structures. Legal frameworks require comprehensive technical evidence to be submitted by an applicant on the biology of the organism, its safety to human, ...
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Towards inclusive social appraisal: risk, participation and democracy in governance of synthetic biology

Stirling, A., K. R. Hayes and J. Delborne,  BMC Proceedings,  12:15. 2018.
Frameworks that govern the development and application of novel products, such as the products of synthetic biology, should involve all those who are interested or potentially affected by the products. The governance arrangements for novel products should also provide a ...
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Public engagement pathways for emerging GM insect technologies

Burgess, M. M., J. D. Mumford and J. V. Lavery,  BMC Proceedings,  12:12. 2018.
Policy and management related to the release of organisms generated by emerging biotechnologies for pest management should be informed through public engagement. Regulatory decisions can be conceptually distinguished into the development of frameworks, the assessment of the ...
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GM insect pests under the Brazilian regulatory framework: development and perspectives

Andrade, P. P., M. A. da Silva Ferreira, M. S. Muniz and A. de Casto Lira-Neto,  BMC Proceedings,  12:15. 2018.
The emergence of new technologies for genetic modification has broadened the range of possible new products. The regulations of many countries that could benefit from these new products may not be prepared to assess risks and enable science-based decision-making. This is ...
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Regulation of emerging gene technologies in India

Ahuja, V.,  BMC Proceedings,  12:14. 2018.
In India, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the products thereof are regulated under the “Rules for the manufacture, use, import, export & storage of hazardous microorganisms, genetically engineered organisms or cells, 1989” (referred to as Rules, 1989) notified under ...
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Africa kicks against proposed gene drive moratorium at UN Biodiversity Conference

Gakpo, JO,  Cornell Alliance for Science,  2018.
Africa has kicked against a proposed moratorium on the environmental release of organisms containing gene drives now under debate at the United Nation’s biodiversity conference in Egypt.
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Burkina Faso’s mosquito controversy: Consent, awareness and risk assessment in Target Malaria’s gene drive project

Fuhr, L,  Klima der Gerechtigkeit,  2018.
The 14th Conference of the Parties (COP 14) to the Convention on Biological Diversity is taking place in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, from the 17th to the 29th of November, 2018. Amongst other things, delegates are discussing a moratorium on the release of gene drives, a powerful ...
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Genetic extinction technology challenged at UN Convention on biodiversity

reporter, A,  Ekklesia,  2018.
From November 17-29 2018, international conservation and environmental leaders are meeting to call on governments to protect biodiversity and Indigenous Peoples’ and local communities’ rights from controversial new biotechnologies. Friends of the Earth says gene drives have ...
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From geoengineering to gene drives: move over, moratoria

Woods, E,  In Verba,  2018.
Around this time six years ago I was in Hyderabad in India getting to grips with moratoria. Back then conversations revolved around geoengineering – techniques to reduce global warming by intervening in the Earth’s climate system – and whether a ban on geoengineering ...
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From terminator to exterminator

etc group,  etc group,  2018.
20 years after suicide seeds, civil society mobilizes in Egypt this week to stop the sequel – Gene Drive Organisms
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Research on gene drive technology can benefit conservation and public health.

Outreach Network for Gene Drive Research,  Outreach Network for Gene Drive Research,  2018.
As a global community, we are facing life-threatening challenges that undermine our future, from catastrophic loss of biodiversity to acute public health threats.
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Gene drives promise great gains and great dangers

The Economist,  The Economist,  2018.
Extinctions are seldom cause for celebration. Humans are wiping out species at a frightening rate, whether hunting them into history or, far more threateningly, damaging the habitats on which they depend. But occasionally, the destruction is warranted. Smallpox was officially ...
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Gene Drives – Wundermittel? Biowaffe?

Swiss Academy of Sciences SCNAT,  Swiss Academy of Sciences,  2018.
Gene drives are genetic elements that skew the pattern of inheritance of a given characteristic in sexually reproduc- ing organisms. They can be used to spread a characteristic that can alter or even reduce the numbers of individuals in wild populations of a certain species.
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Anomaly handling and the politics of gene drives

S. W. Evans and M. J. Palmer,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S223-S242. 2018.
Decisions about the development and use of gene drives are framing broader debates about the need for fundamental changes to biotechnology regulatory systems. We summarize this debate and describe how gene drives are being constructed as potential anomalies within the regulatory ...
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Regulating animals with gene drive systems: lessons from the regulatory assessment of a genetically engineered mosquito

Z. Meghani and J. Kuzma,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S203-S222. 2018.
In this paper, we consider the question of whether the United States Food and Drug Administration is prepared to effectively regulate insects and other animals with gene drives. Given the profound impact that gene drives could have on species and ecosystems, their use is a ...
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Harnessing gene drive

J. Min, A. L. Smidler, D. Najjar and K. M. Esvelt,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5. 2018.
Determining whether, when, and how to develop gene drive interventions responsibly will be a defining challenge of our time. Here we describe capabilities, safeguards, applications, and opportunities relevant to gene drive technologies.
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A roadmap for gene drives: using institutional analysis and development to frame research needs and governance in a systems context

J. Kuzma, F. Gould, Z. Brown, J. Collins, J. Delborne, E. Frow, K. Esvelt, D. Guston, C. Leitschuh, K. Oye and S. Stauffer,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S13-S39. 2018.
This paper reports on a workshop held in February 2016 to explore the complex intersection of political, economic, ethical, and ecological risk issues associated with gene drives. Workshop participants were encouraged to use systems thinking and mapping to describe the ...
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Mapping research and governance needs for gene drives

J. Delborne, J. Kuzma, F. Gould, E. Frow, C. Leitschuh and J. Sudweeks,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S4-S12. 2018.
This special issue represents both deep and broad thinking about gene drives. The papers were first drafted nearly two years ago, and since then have been reviewed and revised to flesh out key arguments and take account of ongoing developments in the field. This field has moved ...
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Gene drives and the expanding horizon of governance

E. Fisher,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S1-S3. 2018.
Like other areas of emerging science and technology that trigger prolonged public debate over their transformative prospects, gene drives simultaneously generate prospects for new knowledge, hoped-for benefits, and formidable concerns. Their ability to bias inheritance of and in ...
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Means and ends of effective global risk assessments for genetic pest management

Turner, GB, Camilla; Roda, Lucia,  BMC Proceedings,  12:13. 2018.
The development and use of genetic technologies is regulated by countries according to their national laws and governance structures. Legal frameworks require comprehensive technical evidence to be submitted by an applicant on the biology of the organism, its safety to human, ...
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Development of community of practice to support quantitative risk assessment for synthetic biology products: contaminant bioremediation and invasive carp control as cases

Trump, BF, C.; Rycroft, T.; Wood, M. D.; Bandolin, N.; Cains, M.; Cary, T.; Crocker, F.; Friedenberg, N. A.; Gurian, P.; Hamilton, K.; Hoover, J.J.; Meyer, C.; Pokrzywinski, K.; Ritterson, R.; Schulte, P.; Warner, C. ; Perkins, E.; Linkov, I.,  Environmental Systems and Decisions,  38:517-527. 2018.
Synthetic biology has the potential for a broad array of applications. However, realization of this potential is challenged by the paucity of relevant data for conventional risk assessment protocols, a limitation due to to the relative nascence of the field, as well as the poorly ...
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Developing standard operating procedures for gene drive research in disease vector mosquitoes

Z. N. Adelman, D. Pledger and K. M. Myles,  Pathogens and Global Health,  111:436-447. 2018.
Here we discuss information to be considered by principal investigators, biosafety officers, and institutional biosafety committees as they work together to develop SOPs for experiments involving gene drive in arthropods, and describe various courses of action that can be used ...
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THE NATIONAL BIOSAFETY TECHNICAL COMMISSION (CTNBio) NORMATIVE RESOLUTION No. 16, OF JANUARY 15, 2018

CTNBio,  National Biosafety Technical Commission of Brasil,  2018.
Sets forth the technical requirements for submitting an inquiry to the CTNBio concerning Precision Breeding Innovation Techniques. THE NATIONAL BIOSAFETY TECHNICAL COMMISSION (CTNBio), using its legal and regulatory powers and in observance of sections XV and XVI of article 14 of ...
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Report of the ad hoc technical expert group on synthetic biology

Ad Hoc Technical Working Group,  Convention on Biological Diversity,  2017.
In decision XIII/17, the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity commended the work of the online forum and the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Synthetic Biology (AHTEG) and welcomed the conclusions and recommendations of the report of the AHTEG as a ...
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Conservation demands safe gene drive

K. M. Esvelt and N. J. Gemmell,  PLOS Biology,  15:e2003850. 2017.
Here, we explore the risk of accidental spread posed by self-propagating gene drive technologies, highlight new gene drive designs that might achieve better outcomes, and explain why we need open and international discussions concerning a technology that could have global ...
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Using CRISPR-based gene drive for agriculture pest control

V. Courtier-Orgogozo, B. Morizot and C. Boëte,  EMBO Reports,  18:1481. 2017.
The authors respond to comments to their publication 10.15252/embr.201744205
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ASSEMBLY OF THE UNION Twenty-Ninth Ordinary Session: DECISIONS, DECLARATIONS AND RESOLUTION

African Union,  African Union,  2017.
Assembly/AU/Dec.649(XXIX): COMMITS to sustain the gains made in the fight against Malaria and monitor antimalarial drug resistance and insecticide resistance; COMMITS ALSO to invest in the development and regulation of the gene-drive technology as well as other new innovations ...
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The use of gene editing to create gene drives for pest control in New Zealand

Royal Society Te Apārangi Gene Editing Panel,  Royal Society of New Zealand,  2017.
to explore the implications of gene editing technology for New Zealand, the Royal Society Te Apārangi has convened a multidisciplinary panel of some of New Zealand’s leading experts to consider the social, cultural, legal and economic implications of revolutionary ...
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Agricultural pest control with CRISPR-based gene drive: time for public debate

V. Courtier-Orgogozo, B. Morizot and C. Boëte,  EMBO Reports,  18:878-880. 2017.
Gene drive technology to control disease vectors or pests has great potential for addressing humanitarian and public health problems. Its application for pest control in agriculture, however, raises important environmental, social and ethical issues.
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SCIENTIFIC OPINION: In response to the referral of 12 October 2015 concerning use of genetically modified mosquitoes for vector control

High Council for Biotechnology,  High Council for Biotechnology (France),  2017.
The Scientific Committee’s opinion describes emerging vector control techniques using GM mosquitoes, the current state of research into and development of these techniques and the outcomes of initial experiments worldwide. To date, only one technique has been developed to an ...
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Genome editing: scientific opportunities, public interests and policy options in the European Union

EASAC,  European Academies Science Advisory Council,  2017.
In many of the areas in which EASAC, the European Academies’ Science Advisory Council, works, where a large and solid body of knowledge is needed to inform the action of our societies, it is important to recognise that there is an intimate mix of science and values involved in ...
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Adaptive risk management of gene drive experiments: Biosafety, biosecurity, and ethics

Lunshof, JEB, A.,  Applied Biosafety,  22:97-103. 2017.
Emerging technologies in the life sciences call for new models of biosafety risk management. We examine the question of how to; address new developments in the life sciences and biosciences in a bottom-up manner—that is, from the concrete level of; biosafety practice with a ...
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Guidance on risk assessment of living modified organisms and monitoring in the context of risk assessment

Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group (AHTEG) on Risk Assessment and Risk Management,,  Convention on Biological Diversity,  2016.
This document was developed by the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group (AHTEG) on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, with input from the Open-ended Online Expert Forum, in accordance with terms of reference set out by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the ...
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Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values

U. S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,  The National Academies Press,  2016.
Scientists have studied gene drives for more than 50 years. The development of a powerful genome editing tool in 2012, CRISPR/Cas9,1 led to recent breakthroughs in gene drive research that built on that half century’s worth of knowledge, and stimulated new discussion of the ...
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Can systematic reviews inform GMO risk assessment and risk management?

Kohl, CF, G.; Sweet, J.; Spok, A.; Haddaway, N.R.; Wilhelm, R.; Unger, S.; Schiemann, J.,  Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology,  3:113. 2015.
Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize, and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and ...
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Biosafety for human health and the environment in the context of the potential use of genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs)

WHO/TDR,  WHO/TDR Training Manual,  2015.
This Training manual: Biosafety for human health and the environment in the context of the potential use of genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) is based on biosafety training courses on GMMs undertaken in Africa, Asia and Latin America from 2008–2011. The courses were ...
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Regulatory experience and challenges for the release of GM insects

Beech, C,  Journal Fur Verbraucherschutz Und Lebensmittelsicherheit-Journal of Consumer Protection and Food Safety,  9:S71-S76. 2014.
Genetically modified (GM) insects are a potentially valuable new tool for the biological control of insect pests of humans, animals and plants. Considerable progress has been made recently in transfer of GM insects from the laboratory to release and evaluation in the environment. ...
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Regulating gene drives

Oye, KAE, K.; Appleton, E.; Catteruccia, F.; Church, G.; Kuiken, T.; Lightfoot, S. B. Y.; McNamara, J.; Smidler, A.; Collins, J. P.,  Science,  345:626-628. 2014.
Regulatory gaps must be filled before gene drives could be used in the wild
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Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified animals

European Food Safety Authority,  European Food Safety Authority,  2013.
This document describes the six sequential steps for the ERA of GM animals, as indicated in Directive 2001/18/EC: (1) problem formulation including hazard and exposure identification; (2) hazard characterisation; (3) exposure characterisation; (4) risk characterisation; (5) risk ...
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Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified animals.

EFSA GMO Panel (EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms),  EFSA Journal,  11:3200. 2013.
This document provides guidance for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of living genetically modified (GM) animals, namely fish, insects and mammals and birds, to be placed on the European Union (EU) market in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 or Directive ...
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Progress and prospects for the use of genetically modified mosquitoes to inhibit disease transmission

A. A. James, J. D. Mumford, S. L. James and Y. T. Touré,  WHO/TDR,  2010.
The use of genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) for disease control has social, economic and ethical implications, so it is important that the World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners provide guidance to countries on these issues. In collaboration with the Foundation ...
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Ethical, legal and social aspects of the approach in Sudan

B. B. El Sayed, C. A. Malcolm, A. Babiker, E. M. Malik, M. A. H. El Tayeb, N. S. Saeed, A. H. D. Nugud and B. G. J. Knols,  Malaria Journal,  8:S3. 2009.
The global malaria situation, especially in Africa, and the problems frequently encountered in chemical control of vectors such as insecticide resistance, emphasize the urgency of research, development and implementation of new vector control technologies that are applicable at ...
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Use of Genetically Engineered Fruit Fly and Pink Bollworm in APHIS Plant Pest Control Programs: Final Environmental Impact Statement—October 2008

USDA/APHIS,  USDA/APHIS,  2008.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), in cooperation with several States and foreign countries, is proposing further development of genetically engineered fruit fly species and pink bollworm for use in various applications ...
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RSPM No. 27 Guidelines for Importation and Confined Field Release of Transgenic Arthropods in NAPPO Member Countries

NAPPPO,  NAPPO Regional Standards for Phytosanitary Measures,  2007.
This Standard is designed to provide guidance to NAPPO member countries on the importation and confined field release of transgenic arthropods that are known plant pests or have the potential to affect plant health. This includes transgenic arthropods used for biological control ...
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Guidelines for the export, shipment, import and release of biological control agents and other beneficial organisms

International Plant Protection Convention,  Food and Agriculture Organization,  2005.
This standard provides guidelines for risk management related to the export, shipment, import and release of biological control agents and other beneficial organisms. It lists the related responsibilities of contracting parties to the IPPC, national plant protection organizations ...
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General principles for risk assessment of living modified organisms: Lessons from chemical risk assessment

Hill, RAS, C.,  Environ. Biosafety Res,  2:81-88. 2003.
Modern biotechnology has led to the development and use of Living Modified Organisms (LMOs) for agriculture and other purposes. Regulators at the national level are increasingly depending on risk assessment as a tool for assessing potential adverse effects of LMOs on the ...
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Malaria Control with Genetically Manipulated Insect Vectors

L. Alphey, C. B. Beard, P. Billingsley, M. Coetzee, A. Crisanti, C. Curtis, P. Eggleston, C. Godfray, J. Hemingway, M. Jacobs-Lorena, A. A. James, F. C. Kafatos, L. G. Mukwaya, M. Paton, J. R. Powell, W. Schneider, T. W. Scott, B. Sina, R. Sinden, S. Sink,  Science,  298:119. 2002.
At a recent workshop, experts discussed the benefits, risks, and research priorities associated with using genetically manipulated insects in the control of vector-borne diseases.
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