Keywords: regulation

Oxitec and MosquitoMate in the United States: lessons for the future of gene drive mosquito control

C. E. Schairer, J. Najera, A. A. James, O. S. Akbari and C. S. Bloss,  Pathogens and Global Health,  2021.
ABSTRACTIn response to growing concerns regarding mosquito-borne diseases, scientists are developing novel systems of vector control. Early examples include Oxitec?s OX513A genetically-engineered mosquito and MosquitoMate?s Wolbachia-infected mosquito, and systems using ...
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Gene Drives – Engineering the Wild

L. Sharratt,  Sentinel,  2021.
So far, genetically engineered organisms have been mostly limited to agricultural use, with partial success. Around the world, a few major crops (mostly corn, soy, and cotton) are genetically engineered, predominantly for herbicide tolerance and insect resistance. However, the ...
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Africa Turning to Gene Drive Technology for Malaria Elimination

M. Hearty,  Science Africa,  2021.
With Africa accounting for nine out of ten malaria cases globally, the continent is turning to gene drive technology to control the disease. This is according to a decision made by African leaders at the 29th Summit of Heads of States and Governments of the African Union held in ...
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West African countries working together to develop framework to regulate genetically engineered mosquitos: Target Malaria

Anonymous,  Global News,  2021.
Abdoulaye Diabaté, principal investigator for Target Malaria, says West African countries like Burkina Faso, Mali and Benin are working with the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) to develop a pan-West African framework to regulate gene drive mosquitos.
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Potential use of gene drive modified insects against disease vectors, agricultural pests and invasive species poses new challenges for risk assessment

Y. Devos, J. D. Mumford, M. B. Bonsall, A. M. Camargo, L. G. Firbank, D. C. M. Glandorf, F. Nogué, K. Paraskevopoulos and E. A. Wimmer,  Critical Reviews in Biotechnology,  2021.
Potential future application of engineered gene drives (GDs), which bias their own inheritance and can spread genetic modifications in wild target populations, has sparked both enthusiasm and concern. Engineered GDs in insects could potentially be used to address long-standing ...
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‘Nigeria has capacity for safe application of modern biotechnology’

M. Adewale,  The Guardian,  2021.
Director-general of the National Biosafety Management Agency (NBMA), Dr. Rufus Ebegba, has declared that Nigeria has the capacity to deploy safe biotechnology products for agricultural development and environmental safety. Ebegba, who gave the assurance at the opening of a ...
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European Parliament calls for ban on gene drive technology

Save Our Seeds,  Save Our Seeds,  2021.
The European Parliament yesterday confirmedi it‘s precautionary stance towards the use of a new genetic engineering technology called gene drive. In its report on the EU’s Biodiversity Strategy for 2030, adopted at the European Parliament’s plenary on 08.06.2021, ...
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Living With the Limits of Our New Clerisy’s Knowledge

R. Fernandez,  PJ Media,  2021.
We are living in a strange time when reason has fallen short of human expectations and there is, once again, pressure to place our trust in faith. Leighton Woodhouse hit the nail on the head when he argued that we have appointed a New Clerisy to rule over us, not because they are ...
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African Experts Welcome WHO Guidance on Ethics, Standards, and Governance of Genetically Modified Mosquito Research

E. Nakkazi,  Health Policy Watch,  2021.
Researchers engaged in mosquito gene drive technologies are optimistic that new World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on best research practices will ensure that their work is safe and ethical. Such guidance also helps research results advance from laboratories to be used in ...
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What is wrong in extinguishing a species? Charting the Ethical Challenges of using Gene-Drive Technologies to eradicate A. gambiae vector populations

M. Annoni and T. Pievani,  Biolaw Journal-Rivista Di Biodiritto,  2021.
This article analyses three ethical arguments against the use of gene-drive technologies to control for, and possibly extinguish, a particular species of vector mosquitoes (Anopheles gambiae) causing the malaria infection. We conclude that none of these arguments is truly ...
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WHO releases new guidance for deployment of genetically modified mosquitoes

E. Henderson,  News Medical Life Sciences,  2021.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has released new guidance for the deployment of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes to combat vector-borne diseases like malaria and dengue. GM mosquitoes may carry a gene that kills female progeny and the technology can be used against the ...
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Q&A: WHO updates guidance on testing genetically modified mosquitoes

E. N. Dreisbach,  Healio,  2021.
Researchers have been exploring the use of genetically modified mosquitos as a potential control method for vector-borne diseases. Just last month, Oxitec began releasing its genetically modified (GM), self-limiting male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the Florida Keys in the hope of ...
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Why the EU should back research into gene drive – even if Europe never uses it

R. Müller,  The Brussels Times,  2021.
As the EU’s Biodiversity Strategy reaches the European Parliament, it has reopened a worrying debate about research into gene drive technology, a tool which could pave the way for biasing the inheritance of desired genetic traits through targeted species. Advances in this kind ...
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Genetically modified mosquitoes; WHO issues new guidance for research

DTE Staff,  Down To Earth,  2021.
Genetically-modified mosquitoes or GMMs have been used across the world to control mosquitoes. GMMs have been able to bring down the population of the Aedes aegypti by 90 per cent in countries like Brazil, the Cayman Islands, Panama and Malaysia. But there have never been any ...
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WHO issues new guidance for research on genetically modified mosquitoes to fight malaria and other vector-borne diseases

WHO,  reliefweb,  2021.
New guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) sets essential standards to inform future research and development on genetically modified mosquitoes, particularly in addressing issues relating to ethics, safety, affordability and effectiveness. Malaria and other ...
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Guidance framework for testing of genetically modified mosquitoes, second edition

WHO,  WHO-TDR,  2021.
For more than 2 decades, scientists have been working to harness the promise of molecular biology to develop genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) for use as public health tools to prevent the transmission of vector-borne diseases. Responding to a need for additional standards ...
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The legal regulation of gene drive technologies

C. Elves,  Univeristy of Oxford,  2021.
Gene drive technologies purport to provide a panacea and yet in doing so present unprecedented risks that threaten to change, potentially irreversibly, the way in which we live in the world. Gene drive technologies raise questions about what ends societies ought to seek for their ...
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Driving genetic destruction

Anonymous,  Alliance for Natural Health,  2021.
Genetically-engineered (GE) mosquitoes have been released in a number of countries, including the US. We’ve known for some time that these experiments have not gone to plan, but a new paper provides a better understanding of how they’ve went awry, and provides a harrowing ...
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Selection of Sites for Field Trials of Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes with Gene Drive

G. C. Lanzaro, M. Campos, M. Crepeau, A. Cornel, A. Estrada, H. Gripkey, Z. Haddad, A. Kormos, S. Palomares and W. Sharpee,  bioRxiv,  2021.04.28.441877. 2021.
Novel malaria control strategies using genetically engineered mosquitoes (GEMs) are on the horizon. Population modification is one approach wherein mosquitoes are engineered with genes rendering them refractory to the malaria parasite coupled with a low-threshold, Cas9-based gene ...
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Fighting mosquitoes with mosquitoes

W. Feng,  The Daily Targum,  2021.
When you think about the animal that has killed the greatest number of humans in the world, you generally tend to think of large predators. Is it perhaps the great white shark or maybe the cute but deadly hippopotamus? While these animals are certainly deadly, the number of ...
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CRISPR-Cas and Its Wide-Ranging Applications: From Human Genome Editing to Environmental Implications, Technical Limitations, Hazards and Bioethical Issues

R. Piergentili, A. Del Rio, F. Signore, F. U. Ronchi, E. Marinelli and S. Zaami,  Cells,  10:24. 2021.
The CRISPR-Cas system is a powerful tool for in vivo editing the genome of most organisms, including man. During the years this technique has been applied in several fields, such as agriculture for crop upgrade and breeding including the creation of allergy-free foods, for ...
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US Gene Drive Governance: A Special Feature in Health Security

L. Warmbrod, A. Kobokovich, R. West, G. K. Gronvall and M. Montague,  Health Security,  19:131-132. 2021.
The novel potential of gene drives and related genetic pest control measures highlights a gap in the oversight of products using such technologies in the United States. The US Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology, as applied by US Environmental Protection Agency, ...
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Systematic identification of plausible pathways to potential harm via problem formulation for investigational releases of a population suppression gene drive to control the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in West Africa

J. B. Connolly, J. D. Mumford, S. Fuchs, G. Turner, C. Beech, A. R. North and A. Burt,  Malaria Journal,  20:170. 2021.
Population suppression gene drive has been proposed as a strategy for malaria vector control. A CRISPR-Cas9-based transgene homing at the doublesex locus (dsxFCRISPRh) has recently been shown to increase rapidly in frequency in, and suppress, caged laboratory populations of the ...
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Quantifying the risk of vector-borne disease transmission attributable to genetically modified vectors

G. R. Hosack, A. Ickowicz and K. R. Hayes,  Royal Society Open Science,  8:201525. 2021.
The relative risk of disease transmission caused by the potential release of transgenic vectors, such as through sterile insect technique or gene drive systems, is assessed with comparison with wild-type vectors. The probabilistic risk framework is demonstrated with an assessment ...
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The science & ethics of gene drive technology from a conservation & development perspective

Renew Europe,  Renew Europe,  2021.
This hearing intends to examine gene-drive technology and its possible impacts, including unintended ones and reveal the complexity of an unknown technology with inherent uncertainties. Scientists from different backgrounds in the field of gene-drive research will present most ...
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Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment of Gene Drives

Hector Quemada and David O'Brochta,  ,  2021.
Unlike non-gene drive organisms, which can be limited in time and space and therefore provide data in small scale tests that can be relevant to large scale releases, the potential for large-scale spread from a limited release, even in well-isolated trials, means that reliance on ...
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GeneConvene Webinar Series on: Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment of Gene Drives

Hector Quemada and David O'Brochta,  ,  2021.
Unlike non-gene drive organisms, which can be limited in time and space and therefore provide data in small scale tests that can be relevant to large scale releases, the potential for large-scale spread from a limited release, even in well-isolated trials, means that reliance on ...
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Les Européens très critiques vis-à-vis du forçage génétique

L. Duboua-Lorsch,  EURACTIV,  2021.
Cette technique, qui vise à éradiquer ou modifier certaines espèces dites nuisibles, sera au cœur des négociations cette année, alors que se profile la COP15 sur la biodiversité. maginez un monde débarrassé d’insectes porteurs de maladies, de parasites agricoles, ...
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GENE DRIVE ACCEPTANCE SURVEY

YouGov,  Pollinis,  2021.
This representative survey was conducted by the international market research institute YouGov and polled 8.826 citizens from 8 EU countries in December 2020. It was commissioned by WeMove Europe, Save Our Seeds (Germany), Skiftet (Sweden), France Nature Environnement (FNE) ...
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Next-generation tools to control biting midge populations and reduce pathogen transmission

P. Shults, L. W. Cohnstaedt, Z. N. Adelman and C. Brelsfoard,  Parasites and Vectors,  14:31. 2021.
Biting midges of the genus Culicoides transmit disease-causing agents resulting in a significant economic impact on livestock industries in many parts of the world. Localized control efforts, such as removal of larval habitat or pesticide application, can be logistically ...
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Conservation pest control with new technologies: public perceptions

E. A. MacDonald, M. B. Neff, E. Edwards, F. Medvecky and J. Balanovic,  Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand,  2021.
We conducted eleven focus groups in New Zealand to explore three questions about novel technologies (gene drive and two others for comparison of pest control tools): (1) what are the risks/benefits? (2) how do they compare to current methods? and (3) who should be represented on ...
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New GE unintentionally leaves traces in cells

C. Then,  Testbiotech,  2020.
A new scientific publication shows that CRISPR/Cas gene scissor applications in animals unintentionally leave traces. The findings are not related to unintended changes in the DNA, which have often been described, but to gene regulation, i.e. epigenetics. The effects are ...
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Core commitments for field trials of gene drive organisms

K. C. Long, L. Alphey, G. J. Annas, C. S. Bloss, K. J. Campbell, J. Champer, C.-H. Chen, A. Choudhary, G. M. Church, J. P. Collins, K. L. Cooper, J. A. Delborne, O. R. Edwards, C. I. Emerson, K. Esvelt, S. W. Evans, R. M. Friedman, V. M. Gantz, F. Gould,,  Science,  370:1417-1419. 2020.
While field trials of gene drive organisms (GDOs) ultimately will depend on public policy decisions, those engaged in GDO work can play critical roles in support of these decisions by generating evidence and developing evaluation strategies in fair and effective partnerships with ...
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Scientists paved the way for field trials of gene-driven organisms

K. Winslet,  FLORIDA News Times,  2020.
The recent rise of gene drive research, accelerated by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology, has brought about a wave of transformation throughout science.Developed with selected traits that have been genetically engineered to spread throughout the population, Gene Drive ...
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Technical Support to Burkina Faso on Gene Drive Stage 2 Dossier Review

AUDA-NEPAD,  AUDA-NEPAD,  2020.
AUDA-NEPAD in partnership with the National Biosafety Agency (ANB) in Burkina Faso organised a training workshop to support to the National Biosafety Committee (NBC) on stage 2 dossier review, on December 3 – 5, 2020, in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. In addition to the NBC ...
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Gene Drive-Modified Organisms: Developing Practical Risk Assessment Guidance

Y. Devos, M. B. Bonsall, L. G. Firbank, J. Mumford, F. Nogué and E. A. Wimmer,  Trends in Biotechnology,  2020.
Risk assessors, risk managers, developers, potential applicants, and other stakeholders at many levels discuss the need for new or further risk assessment guidance for deliberate environmental releases of gene drive-modified organisms. However, preparing useful and practical ...
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Scientists Set a Path for Field Trials of Gene Drive Organisms

M. Aguilera,  UC San Diego News Center,  2020.
The modern rise of gene drive research, accelerated by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology, has led to transformational waves rippling across science. Gene drive organisms (GDOs), developed with select traits that are genetically engineered to spread through a population, have ...
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Burkina Faso Stakeholders consultations on Gene Drive Technology for integrated vector management towards malaria elimination

AUDA-NEPAD,  AUDA-NEPAD,  2020.
Under its flagship Integrated Vector Management (IVM) Programme, African Union Development Agency (AUDA-NEPAD) in partnership with the National biosafety agency (ANB) of Burkina Faso organized an information sharing workshop on the applications of "Gene Drive" technology and ...
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A Gene Drive Could Wipe Out Mosquitoes. But What If We Want To Turn It Off?

A. Winkler,  freethink,  2020.
Gene drives are powerful tools: they allow scientists to hack how animals pass down genes to their offspring. They could allow us to wipe out malaria-carrying mosquitoes, preserve endangered species, or fight off crop-eating pests. But once it's out in the wild, a gene drive ...
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Evaluating Gene Drive Approaches for Public Benefit

M. R. Santos,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
Gene drive approaches—those which bias inheritance of a genetic element in a population of sexually reproducing organisms—have the potential to provide important public benefits. The spread of selected genetic elements in wild populations of organisms may help address certain ...
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Engineered Gene Drives and their Value in the Control of Vector-Borne Diseases, Weeds, Pests, and Invasive Species

K. Hefferon and R. Herring,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
Genetic engineering has created potential for moving medical and agricultural research and application frontiers forward in unprecedented ways. Despite its accepted use as a powerful tool in medical research, genetic modification and genome editing technologies remain ...
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Engineered Gene Drives: Ecological, Environmental, and Societal Concerns

J. Kuzma,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
This chapter overviews the types, purposes, and potential impacts of gene drive organisms (GDOs) and discusses challenges with foreseeing and assessing these impacts prior to their environmental release. It concludes with a few examples of risk analysis methods and governance ...
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Genetically Engineered Fish: Potential Impacts on Aquaculture, Biodiversity, and the Environment

R. A. Dunham and B. Su,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
Studies on transgenic fish for the aquaculture industry have focused on improving growth rates, enhancing disease resistance, altering body composition, acting as biological factories for medical proteins, and even altering temperature tolerance and coloration. The future impact ...
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GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes

Chaurasia, Anurag , Hawksworth, David L., Pessoa de Miranda, Manoela.,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
This book covers a broad spectrum of topics related to GMOs and allied new gene-based technologies, biodiversity, and ecosystem processes, bringing together the contributions of researchers and regulators from around the world. The aim is to offer a clear view of the benefits and ...
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FNIH Panel on Gene Drive Regulation Emphasizes Need for Local Community Engagement

C. Rizk,  GenomeWeb,  2020.
Genetically modified organisms are another topic of deep debate, with some activists agitating for and getting governments to implement deep restrictions on modified crops. More recently, GMO crops have started to regain public favor, particularly in countries where boosting the ...
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Further guidance required for assessment of gene drive technology, says EFSA

Euractiv,  The World News Monitor,  2020.
Existing guidelines are adequate for evaluating risks associated with gene-drive modified insects, but further guidance is needed for some areas, most notably for environmental risk assessments. The evaluation was requested to explore the issue ahead of the consideration of any ...
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Mutagenic chain reaction cannot be sufficiently controlled

Christoph Then,  Testbiotech,  2020.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has published the results of its public consultation on the risks of so-called gene drive organisms. Testbiotech accuses the authority of disguising the real dimension of the risks. Gene drives are designed to spread artificial genetic ...
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Outcome of a public consultation on the draft adequacy and sufficiency evaluation of existing EFSA guidelines for the molecular characterisation, environmental risk assessment and post-market environmental monitoring of genetically modified insects containing engineered gene drives

European Food Safety Authority, Y. Devos, M. B. Bonsall, F. Nogué, K. Paraskevopoulos, E. A. Wimmer and L. G. Firbank,  EFSA Supporting Publications,  17:1939E. 2020.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) carried out an online public consultation to receive input from interested parties/persons on the draftscientific opinion on the adequacy and sufficiencyevaluation of existing guidelines for the molecular characterisation (MC), ...
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Gene drives, species, and compassion for individuals in conservation biology

Y. Rohwer,  Ethics, Policy and Environment,  2020.
In this paper I argue that these compassionate conservationists have a moral obligation to support the investigation and development of genetic modification technologies because of their potential to minimize suffering and eliminate killing in conservation. Furthermore, I will ...
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Novel and Exceptional Technology and Research Advisory Committee – NExTRAC -NIH

NIH Office of Science Policy,  National Institutes of Health (NIH),  2020.
NExTRAC provides advice to the Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on matters related to the conduct and oversight of research involving emerging technologies in biomedical science. NExTRAC also makes recommendations on research involving the use of, and ...
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When Extinction is Warranted: Invasive Species, Suppression-Drives, and the Worst-Case Scenario

A. C. Thresher,  Ethics, Policy and Environment,  2020.