Keywords: cytoplasmic incompatibility

Harnessing Wolbachia cytoplasmic incompatibility alleles for confined gene drive: a modeling study

J. Li and J. Champer,  bioRxiv,  2022.08.09.503337. 2022.
By using both mathematical and simulation models, we found that a drive containing CifA and CifB together create a confined drive with a moderate to high introduction threshold. When introduced separately, they act as a self-limiting drive. We observed that the performance of ...
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Developing Wolbachia-based disease interventions for an extreme environment

P. A. Ross, S. Elfekih, S. Collier, M. J. Klein, S. S. Lee, M. Dunn, S. Jackson, Y. Zhang, J. K. Axford, X. Gu, M. S. Nasar, P. N. Paradkar, E. A. Taoufik, F. M. Jiggins, A. M. Almalik, M. B. Al-Fageeh and A. A. Hoffmann,  bioRxiv,  2022.07.26.501527. 2022.
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes carrying self-spreading, virus-blocking Wolbachia bacteria are being deployed to suppress dengue transmission. However, there are challenges in applying this technology in extreme environments. We introduced two Wolbachia strains into Ae. aegypti from ...
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Attempts to use breeding approaches in Aedes aegypti to create lines with distinct and stable relative Wolbachia densities

A. J. Mejia, L. Jimenez, H. L. C. Dutra, R. Perera and E. A. McGraw,  Heredity,  2022.
Wolbachia is an insect endosymbiont being used for biological control in the mosquito Aedes aegypti because it causes cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and limits viral replication of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. While the genetic mechanism of pathogen blocking (PB) is ...
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cifB-transcript levels largely explain cytoplasmic incompatibility variation across divergent Wolbachia

J. D. Shropshire, E. Hamant, W. R. Conner and B. S. Cooper,  PNAS Nexus,  2022.
Divergent hosts often associate with intracellular microbes that influence their fitness. Maternally transmitted Wolbachia bacteria are the most common of these endosymbionts due largely to cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) that kills uninfected embryos fertilized by ...
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Sensitivity of wMel and wAlbB Wolbachia infections in Aedes aegypti Puducherry (Indian) strains to heat stress during larval development

K. Gunasekaran, C. Sadanandane, D. Panneer, A. Kumar, M. Rahi, S. Dinesh, B. Vijayakumar, M. Krishnaraja, S. K. Subbarao and P. Jambulingam,  Parasites and Vectors,  15:221. 2022.
BACKGROUND: ICMR-Vector Control Research Centre, Puducherry, India, developed two colonies of Aedes aegypti infected with wMel and wAlbB Wolbacia strains called Ae. aegypti (Pud) lines for dengue control. The sensitivity of wMel and wAlbB strains in Ae. aegypti (Pud) lines to ...
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Male-killing-associated bacteriophage WO identified from comparisons of Wolbachia endosymbionts of Homona magnanima

H. Arai, H. Anbutsu, Y. Nishikawa, M. Kogawa, K. Ishii, M. Hosokawa, S.-R. Lin, M. Ueda, M. Nakai, Y. Kunimi, T. Harumoto, D. Kageyama, H. Takeyama and M. N. Inoue,  bioRxiv,  2022.
The origin and mechanism of male-killing, an advantageous strategy employed by maternally transmitted symbionts such as Wolbachia, remain unclear. We compared genomes of four Wolbachia strains derived from Homona magnanima, a male-killing strain wHm-t (1.5 Mb), and three ...
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Mosquito control to save Hawaiian honeycreepers does not involve GMOs

Department of Land and Natural Resources,  Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources,  2022.
Despite misinformation circulating on social media, the importation of “incompatible-male” mosquitoes to control populations of wild mosquitoes and to save four native bird species from extinction, does not involve the use of any genetically modified organisms (GMOs) or ...
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Establishment of Wolbachia infection in Aedes aegypti from Pakistan via embryonic microinjection and semi-field evaluation of general fitness of resultant mosquito population

M. S. Sarwar, N. Jahan, A. Ali, H. K. Yousaf and I. Munzoor,  Parasites and Vectors,  15:191. 2022.
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is mainly spread by Aedes aegypti. It is prevalent on five continents, predominantly in tropical and sub-tropical zones across the world. Wolbachia bacteria have been extensively used in vector control strategies ...
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Perplexing dynamics of Wolbachia proteins for cytoplasmic incompatibility

T. Harumoto and T. Fukatsu,  PLOS Biology,  20:e3001644. 2022.
The mechanism of symbiont-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility has been a long-lasting mystery. This Primer explores a new study on Wolbachia’s Cif proteins in PLOS Biology that provides supportive evidence for the “Host-Modification Model,” although the alternative ...
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The Cif proteins from Wolbachia prophage WO modify sperm genome integrity to establish cytoplasmic incompatibility

R. Kaur, B. A. Leigh, I. T. Ritchie and S. R. Bordenstein,  PLOS Biology,  20:e3001584. 2022.
In Drosophila melanogaster, germline expression of the Wolbachia proteins CifA and CifB causes cytoplasmic incompatibility, but how this impairs male reproduction remains unclear. This study shows how Cif proteins encoded by the endosymbiont prophage invade the fly’s gametic ...
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Strategies to Mitigate Establishment under the Wolbachia Incompatible Insect Technique

S. Soh, S. H. Ho, J. Ong, A. Seah, B. S. Dickens, K. W. Tan, J. R. Koo, A. R. Cook, S. Sim, C. H. Tan, L. C. Ng and J. T. Lim,  Viruses,  14. 2022.
The Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT) strategy involves the release of male mosquitoes infected with the bacterium Wolbachia. Regular releases of male Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes can lead to the suppression of mosquito populations, thereby reducing the risk of transmission of ...
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Cytoplasmic incompatibility: A Wolbachia toxin–antidote mechanism comes into view

M. Hochstrasser,  Current Biology,  32:R287-R289. 2022.
The Wolbachia cidA and cidB genes promote bacterial endosymbiont inheritance through the host female germline. CidB is now shown to load into maturing sperm nuclei. Following fertilization, it disrupts paternal chromosome condensation, triggering embryonic arrest if not countered ...
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Uniqueness and stability of periodic solutions for an interactive wild and Wolbachia-infected male mosquito model

R. Yan and Q. Sun,  Journal of Biological Dynamics,  2022.
We investigate a mosquito population suppression model, which includes the release of Wolbachia-infected males causing incomplete cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). The model consists of two sub-equations by considering the density-dependent birth rate of wild mosquitoes. By ...
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Quality over quantity: unraveling the contributions to cytoplasmic incompatibility caused by two coinfecting Cardinium symbionts

M. R. Doremus, C. M. Stouthamer, S. E. Kelly, S. Schmitz-Esser and M. S. Hunter,  Heredity,  2022.
Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is a common form of reproductive sabotage caused by maternally inherited bacterial symbionts of arthropods. CI is a two-step manipulation: first, the symbiont modifies sperm in male hosts which results in the death of fertilized, uninfected ...
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Endosymbionts moderate constrained sex allocation in a haplodiploid thrips species in a temperature-sensitive way

A. Katlav, D. T. Nguyen, J. L. Morrow, R. N. Spooner-Hart and M. Riegler,  Heredity,  9. 2022.
Maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts that affect host fitness are common in nature. Some endosymbionts colonise host populations by reproductive manipulations (such as cytoplasmic incompatibility; CI) that increase the reproductive fitness of infected over uninfected ...
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Paternal transmission of the Wolbachia CidB toxin underlies cytoplasmic incompatibility

B. Horard, K. Terretaz, A. S. Gosselin-Grenet, H. Sobry, M. Sicard, F. Landmann and B. Loppin,  Current Biology,  2022.
Wolbachia are widespread endosymbiotic bacteria that manipulate the reproduction of arthropods through a diversity of cellular mechanisms. In cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), a sterility syndrome originally discovered in the mosquito Culex pipiens, uninfected eggs fertilized by ...
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Cytoplasmic incompatibility in hybrid zones: infection dynamics and resistance evolution

E. S. Røed and J. Engelstädter,  Journal of Evolutionary Biology,  2021.
Cytoplasmic incompatibility is an endosymbiont-induced mating incompatibility common in arthropods. Unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility impairs crosses between infected males and uninfected females, whereas bidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility occurs when two host ...
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From Wolbachia genomics to phenotype: molecular models of cytoplasmic incompatibility must account for the multiplicity of compatibility types

A. Namias, M. Sicard, M. Weill and S. Charlat,  Current Opinion in Insect Science,  2021.
Wolbachia endosymbionts commonly induce cytoplasmic incompatibility, making infected males’ sperm lethal to the embryos unless these are rescued by the same bacterium, inherited from their mother. Causal genes were recently identified but two families of mechanistic models are ...
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Wolbachia Endosymbiont and Mosquito Vectors, with Emphasis on Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination

I. P. Sunish,  Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies,  2021.
Wolbachia are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria, known to alter early development and mitotic processes in their hosts. They are frequently observed as a reproductive parasite, capable of inducing feminization, parthenogenesis, male killing, or cytoplasmic ...
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Combined sterile insect technique and incompatible insect technique: concept, study design, experience and lessons learned from a pilot suppression trial in Thailand

Kittayapong, P.,  AREA-WIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: Development and Field Application,  2021.
Climate change, rapid global transport and land use change leading to urbanization and agricultural intensification have facilitated disease emergence in vulnerable regions like Southeast Asia, and also the global expansion of vectors and vector-borne diseases into other regions ...
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Wolbachia cifB induces cytoplasmic incompatibility in the malaria mosquito vector

K. L. Adams, D. G. Abernathy, B. C. Willett, E. K. Selland, M. A. Itoe and F. Catteruccia,  Nature Microbiology,  6:1575-1582. 2021.
Wolbachia, a maternally inherited intracellular bacterial species, can manipulate host insect reproduction by cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which results in embryo lethality in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. CI is encoded by two prophage genes, cifA ...
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High Temperature Cycles Result in Maternal Transmission and Dengue Infection Differences Between Wolbachia Strains in Aedes aegypti

M. V. Mancini, T. H. Ant, C. S. Herd, J. Martinez, S. M. Murdochy, D. D. Gingell, E. Mararo, P. C. D. Johnson and S. P. Sinkins,  mBio,  e0025021. 2021.
Environmental factors play a crucial role in the population dynamics of arthropod endosymbionts, and therefore in the deployment of Wolbachia symbionts for the control of dengue arboviruses. The potential of Wolbachia to invade, persist, and block virus transmission depends in ...
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Novel Symbiotic Genome-Scale Model Reveals Wolbachia’s Arboviral Pathogen Blocking Mechanism in Aedes aegypti

N. E. Jiménez, Z. P. Gerdtzen, Á. Olivera-Nappa, J. C. Salgado and C. Conca,  mBio,  e0156321. 2021.
Arboviral diseases such as Zika and Dengue have been on the rise mainly due to climate change, and the development of new treatments and strategies to limit their spreading is needed. The use of Wolbachia as an approach for disease control has motivated new research related to ...
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Structural and mechanistic insights into the complexes formed by Wolbachia cytoplasmic incompatibility factors

Y. Xiao, H. Chen, H. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, J. M. Berk, L. Zhang, Y. Wei, W. Li, W. Cui, F. Wang, Q. Wang, C. Cui, T. Li, C. Chen, S. Ye, L. Zhang, X. Ji, J. Huang, W. Wang, Z. Wang, M. Hochstrasser and H. Yang,  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,  118. 2021.
Wolbachia bacteria, inherited through the female germ line, infect a large fraction of arthropod species. Many Wolbachia strains manipulate host reproduction, most commonly through cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI, a conditional male sterility, results when Wolbachia-infected ...
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A single mutation weakens symbiont-induced reproductive manipulation through reductions in deubiquitylation efficiency

J. F. Beckmann, K. Van Vaerenberghe, D. E. Akwa and B. S. Cooper,  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,  118:e2113271118. 2021.
We show that a single naturally observed mutation weakens CI by reducing deubiquitylation. These discoveries help elucidate the molecular basis of symbiont-induced reproductive manipulations.Animals interact with microbes that affect their performance and fitness, including ...
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Discrete dynamical models on Wolbachia infection frequency in mosquito populations with biased release ratios

Y. Shi and B. Zheng,  Journal of Biological Dynamics,  2021.
We develop two discrete models to study how supplemental releases affect the Wolbachia spreading dynamics in cage mosquito populations. The first model focuses on the case when only infected males are released at each generation. This release strategy has been proved to be ...
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Two newly introduced Wolbachia endosymbionts induce cell host differences in competitiveness and metabolic responses

T. P. Li, S. S. Zha, C. Y. Zhou, X. Xia, A. A. Hoffmann and X. Y. Hong,  Appl Environ Microbiol,  Aem0147921. 2021.
Wolbachia endosymbionts can induce multiple reproductive manipulations in their hosts, with cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) being one of the most common manipulations. The important agricultural pests, white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera) and brown planthopper ...
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Diverse wMel variants of Wolbachia pipientis differentially rescue fertility and cytological defects of the bag of marbles partial loss of function mutation in Drosophila melanogaster

J. E. Bubnell, P. Fernandez-Begne, C. K. S. Ulbing and C. F. Aquadro,  G3 Genes|Genomes|Genetics,  2021.
In Drosophila melanogaster, the maternally inherited endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis interacts with germline stem cell genes during oogenesis. One such gene, bag of marbles (bam) is the key switch for differentiation and also shows signals of adaptive evolution for protein ...
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Millions of Lab-Grown Mosquitoes Are Being Released in Guangzhou

F. Yiying,  Sixth Tone,  2021.
Guangzhou is releasing millions of lab-engineered mosquitoes every day to neuter and prevent preexisting mosquitoes in the environment from spreading vector-borne diseases, local television station reported Saturday.The Guangzhou Wolbaki Biotech Co., Ltd., in partnership with the ...
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Sex separation of Aedes spp. mosquitoes for sterile insect technique application: a review

B. M. Moran-Aceves, C. F. Marina, A. Dor, P. Liedo and J. Toledo,  Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata,  10. 2021.
Separation of the sexes is necessary for the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in mosquitoes due to the hematophagous habits and disease vector activity of the females. In this review we analyze the history, current status, and future perspectives for the ...
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Wolbachia as translational science: controlling mosquito-borne pathogens

E. P. Caragata, H. L. C. Dutra, P. H. F. Sucupira, A. G. A. Ferreira and L. A. Moreira,  Trends in Parasitology,  2021.
In this review we examine how exploiting the Wolbachia?mosquito relationship has become an increasingly popular strategy for controlling arbovirus transmission. Field deployments of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes have led to significant decreases in dengue virus incidence via high ...
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Manipulated Mosquitoes Cut Dengue by 77%

T. Hayes,  Healthcare Packaging,  2021.
Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease, wasn’t that common 50 years ago. In fact, only nine countries had severe outbreaks. But since then, it’s been on a steady incline to the point that there are now 400 million infections a year that contribute to 22,000 deaths. ...
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Dengue Infections Can Be Sharply Reduced With Wolbachia Bacteria

J. Stone,  Medscape,  2021.
A modestly titled new study released in the New England Journal of Medicine belies the extraordinary 77% protective efficacy reported for preventing dengue infections with Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. A cluster-randomized clinical trial, the AWED ("Applying ...
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Making mosquitoes to fight mosquitoes to prevent dengue

A. George,  Times of India,  2021.
In 2017, Delhi Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal tweeted that the national capitl needed to be made mosquito-free. The same year, his Kerala counterpart, Pinaray Vijayan, called a three-day state-wide cleanliness drive as hospitals filled with genue patients.
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Stable high-density and maternally inherited Wolbachia infections in Anopheles moucheti and Anopheles demeilloni mosquitoes

T. Walker, S. Quek, C. L. Jeffries, J. Bandibabone, V. Dhokiya, R. Bamou, M. Kristan, L. A. Messenger, A. Gidley, E. A. Hornett, E. R. Anderson, C. Cansado-Utrilla, S. Hegde, C. Bantuzeko, J. C. Stevenson, N. F. Lobo, S. C. Wagstaff, C. A. Nkondjio, S. R.,  Current Biology,  31:2310. 2021.
Wolbachia, a widespread bacterium that can reduce pathogen transmission in mosquitoes, has recently been reported to be present in Anopheles (An.) species. In wild populations of the An. gambiae complex, the primary vectors of Plasmodium malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa, Wolbachia ...
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Dengue Fever Cut Down by 77% With Groundbreaking Bacteria-Armed Mosquitoes

M. Davis,  The Science Times,  2021.
Scientists found that dengue fever cases have decreased by 77% in a groundbreaking trial that took place in Yogyakarta City, Indonesia. They used Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes that reduced their ability to spread the dengue fever. The team at the World Mosquito Program said that ...
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Mosquito ‘bacteria hack’ nearly eliminates dengue fever and could save millions of lives

A. Wilkins,  METRO,  2021.
Mosquitoes infected with a ‘miraculous’ bacteria have been shown to reduce dengue fever cases by 77%, in a groundbreaking new study. Scientists released mosquitoes infected with ‘Wolbachia’ bacteria into the Indonesian city of Yogyakarta – but only in certain zones. In ...
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‘Miraculous’ mosquito hack cuts dengue by 77%

J. Gallagher,  BBC,  2021.
Dengue fever cases have been cut by 77% in a "groundbreaking" trial that manipulates the mosquitoes that spread it, say scientists. They used mosquitoes infected with "miraculous" bacteria that reduce the insect's ability to spread dengue. The trial took place in Yogyakarta city, ...
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Modified mosquitoes reduce dengue cases by 77% in Indonesia experiment

M. Fox,  CNN,  2021.
An experiment to infect mosquitoes with bacteria that stop them from transmitting viruses appears to have helped reduced the spread of deadly dengue virus in Indonesia, researchers reported Wednesday. The modified mosquitoes thrived for three years, and cases of dengue were ...
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Efficacy of Wolbachia-Infected Mosquito Deployments for the Control of Dengue

A. Utarini, C. Indriani, R. A. Ahmad, W. Tantowijoyo, E. Arguni, M. R. Ansari, E. Supriyati, D. S. Wardana, Y. Meitika, I. Ernesia, I. Nurhayati, E. Prabowo, B. Andari, B. R. Green, L. Hodgson, Z. Cutcher, E. Rancès, P. A. Ryan, S. L. O’Neill, S. M. Dufau,  New England Journal of Medicine,  384:2177-2186. 2021.
BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia pipientis are less susceptible than wild-type A. aegypti to dengue virus infection. METHODS We conducted a cluster-randomized trial involving releases of wMel-infected A. aegypti mosquitoes for the ...
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A Pivotal Mosquito Experiment Could Not Have Gone Better

E. Yong,  The Atlantic,  2021.
The World Mosquito Program (WMP), a nonprofit that pioneered this technique, had run small pilot studies in Australia that suggested it could work. Utarini, who co-leads WMP Yogyakarta, has now shown conclusively that it does. Her team released Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes in ...
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Mosquitoes armed with virus-fighting bacteria sharply curb dengue infections, hospitalizations

K. Servick,  Science,  2021.
A strategy for fighting dengue fever with bacteria-armed mosquitoes has passed its most rigorous test yet: a large, randomized, controlled trial. Researchers reported today dramatic reductions in rates of dengue infection and hospitalization in areas of an Indonesian city where ...
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Study demonstrates ‘exciting potential’ of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes to control dengue

G. Gallagher,  Healio,  2021.
The release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes led to a 77% reduction in the incidence of symptomatic dengue in an Indonesian city, according to researchers, who said the same approach could be used to fight other mosquito-borne diseases. The study tested a strain of Wolbachia ...
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Vector control: Discovery of Wolbachia in malaria vectors

P. A. Ross and A. A. Hoffmann,  Current Biology,  31:R738-R740. 2021.
Wolbachia bacteria are being widely released for suppression of dengue transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Walker, Quek, Jeffries and colleagues present robust evidence for natural Wolbachia infections in malaria-vectoring Anopheles mosquitoes, paving the way for new ...
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Living in the endosymbiotic world of Wolbachia: A centennial review

R. Kaur, J. D. Shropshire, K. L. Cross, B. Leigh, A. J. Mansueto, V. Stewart, S. R. Bordenstein and S. R. Bordenstein,  Cell Host and Microbe,  29:879-893. 2021.
The most widespread intracellular bacteria in the animal kingdom are maternally inherited endosymbionts of the genus Wolbachia. Their prevalence in arthropods and nematodes worldwide and stunning arsenal of parasitic and mutualistic adaptations make these bacteria a biological ...
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Mechanistically comparing reproductive manipulations caused by selfish chromosomes and bacterial symbionts

E. Dalla Benetta, O. S. Akbari and P. M. Ferree,  Heredity,  126:707-716. 2021.
Insects naturally harbor a broad range of selfish agents that can manipulate their reproduction and development, often leading to host sex ratio distortion. Such effects directly benefit the spread of the selfish agents. These agents include two broad groups: bacterial symbionts ...
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When More is Less: Mosquito Population Suppression Using Sterile, Incompatible and Genetically Modified Male Mosquitoes

S. L. Dobson,  Journal of Medical Entomology,  58:1980-1986. 2021.
The current review of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is motivated by new technologies and the recent renaissance of male release field trials, which is driving an evolution in mosquito control and regulation. Practitioners that are releasing male mosquitoes would do well to ...
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How to engage communities on a large scale? Lessons from World Mosquito Program in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [version 2; peer review: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations]

G. B. Costa, R. Smithyman, S. L. O'Neill and L. A. Moreira,  Gates Open Research,  2021.
Here we discuss and analyse the framework for community engagement implemented by the WMP in Brazil, during the large-scale deployment of the method in the municipalities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Our experience indicates that the community engagement work for ...
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Project Wolbachia: Residents are killing the ‘helpful’ mosquitoes, which can be a nuisance

T. J. Cheng,  today,  2021.
In 2019, Dr Amy Khor, then Senior Minister of State for the Environment and Water Resources, said that there was a 90 per cent suppression rate at study sites in Tampines and Yishun from February to November that year. However, certain public housing estates under the project ...
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GeneConvene Webinar Series on: Genetic Biocontrol

David O'Brochta and Hector Quemada,  ,  2021.
In the mid 20th century various ideas emerged concerning how genetics and genetic principles could be directly applied to age-old problems of managing insects that threaten food security and public health. This series of webinars will explore the current state-of-the-art of what ...
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Next-generation tools to control biting midge populations and reduce pathogen transmission

P. Shults, L. W. Cohnstaedt, Z. N. Adelman and C. Brelsfoard,  Parasites and Vectors,  14:31. 2021.
Biting midges of the genus Culicoides transmit disease-causing agents resulting in a significant economic impact on livestock industries in many parts of the world. Localized control efforts, such as removal of larval habitat or pesticide application, can be logistically ...
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Wolbachia strain wAlbB maintains high density and dengue inhibition following introduction into a field population of Aedes aegypti

N. A. Ahmad, M.-V. Mancini, T. H. Ant, J. Martinez, G. M. R. Kamarul, W. A. Nazni, A. A. Hoffmann and S. P. Sinkins,  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences,  376:20190809. 2020.
Here, wAlbB-carrying Ae. aegypti collected from the field 20 months after the cessation of releases showed no reduction in Wolbachia density or tissue distribution changes compared to a wAlbB laboratory colony. The wAlbB strain continued to induce complete unidirectional ...
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New insect species made via genetic engineering

L. Leffer,  SCIENCELINE,  2020.
A biotech fast-forward button for evolution is on the horizon. Researchers say they have used a novel genetic engineering method to create several new species of fruit fly in the lab for the first time — an achievement which might help put a future without malaria and other ...
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‘A plague to be reckoned with’: UMN research creates a buzz with invasive fruit fly research

B. Most,  The Minnesota Daily,  2020.
n early November, assistant professor Mike Smanski published an article about a new breakthrough in this research, demonstrating for the first time this kind of genetic engineering was possible in the common fruit fly. This shows that researchers could engineer this work into ...
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Vector-Focused Approaches to Curb Malaria Transmission in the Brazilian Amazon: An Overview of Current and Future Challenges and Strategies

E. M. Rocha, R. D. Katak, J. C. de Oliveira, M. D. Araujo, B. C. Carlos, R. Galizi, F. Tripet, O. Marinotti and J. A. Souza,  Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease,  5. 2020.
Here we present an overview on both conventional and novel promising vector-focused tools to curb malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon. If well designed and employed, vector-based approaches may improve the implementation of malaria-control programs, particularly in ...
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Stable Introduction of Plant-Virus-Inhibiting Wolbachia into Planthoppers for Rice Protection

J. T. Gong, Y. Li, T. P. Li, Y. Liang, L. Hu, D. Zhang, C. Y. Zhou, C. Yang, X. Zhang, S. S. Zha, X. Z. Duan, L. A. Baton, X. Y. Hong, A. A. Hoffmann and Z. Xi,  Current Biology,  30:4837-4845.e5. 2020.
Progress has been made in developing the maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia as a tool for protecting humans from mosquito-borne diseases. In contrast, Wolbachia-based approaches have not yet been developed for the protection of plants from insect pests and ...
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Cytoplasmic incompatibility: an autocidal mechanism for mosquito population control

V. Dev,  BugBitten BMC,  2020.
Cytoplasmic incompatibility resulting in non-reciprocal fertility is a naturally occurring phenomenon, but remains unexplored to greater extent for the control of insect vector populations. This mechanism deserves priority for mosquito control and reducing disease transmission, ...
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Modeling the suppression dynamics of Aedes mosquitoes with mating inhomogeneity

M. Huang and L. Hu,  Journal of Biological Dynamics,  14:656-678. 2020.
In this work, we introduce a delay differential equation model with mating inhomogeneity to discuss mosquito population suppression based on Wolbachia. Our analyses show that the wild mosquitoes could be eliminated if either the adult mortality rate exceeds the threshold δ∗A ...
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The Biochemistry of Cytoplasmic Incompatibility Caused by Endosymbiotic Bacteria

H. Chen, M. Zhang and M. Hochstrasser,  Genes,  11. 2020.
Many species of arthropods carry maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts that can influence host sexual reproduction to benefit the bacterium. The most well-known of such reproductive parasites is Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia are obligate intracellular ...
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Genetic Biocontrol – An Overview

GeneConvene Global Collaborative,,  GeneConvene Global Collaborative,  2020.
This video explains what genetic biocontrol is and surveys various technologies that can be consider genetic biocontrol technologies.  It offers a conceptual organization of the various technologies based on the potential of genetic biocontrol organisms to persist and spread in ...
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Wolbachia transinfections in Culex quinquefasciatus generate cytoplasmic incompatibility

T. H. Ant, C. Herd, F. Louis, A. B. Failloux and S. P. Sinkins,  Insect Molecular Biology,  29:1-8. 2020.
Culex quinquefasciatus is an important mosquito vector of a number of viral and protozoan pathogens of humans and animals, and naturally carries the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis, strain wPip. Wolbachia are used in two distinct vector control strategies: firstly, population ...
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The toxin–antidote model of cytoplasmic incompatibility: Genetics and evolutionary implications

Beckmann, J. F., M. Bonneau, H. Chen, M. Hochstrasser, D. Poinsot, H. Merçot, M. Weill, M. Sicard and S. Charlat,  Trends in Genetics,  35:175-185. 2019.
Wolbachia bacteria inhabit the cells of about half of all arthropod species, an unparalleled success stemming in large part from selfish invasive strategies. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), whereby the symbiont makes itself essential to embryo viability, is the most common of ...
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Genetic control of Invasive carp

MAISRC,  Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center,  2019.
This project focuses on a novel method of biocontrol for common carp which will complement existing technologies by introducing a synthetic species-like barrier to reproduction. Researchers will use programmable transcription activators to drive lethal embryonic overexpression of ...
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The toxin–antidote model of cytoplasmic incompatibility: Genetics and evolutionary implications

Beckmann, JFB, Manon; Chen, Hongli; Hochstrasser, Mark; Poinsot, Denis; Merçot, Hervé; Weill, Mylène; Sicard, Mathieu; Charlat, Sylvain,  Trends in Genetics,  35:175-185. 2019.
Wolbachia bacteria inhabit the cells of about half of all arthropod species, an unparalleled success stemming in large part from selfish invasive strategies. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), whereby the symbiont makes itself essential to embryo viability, is the most common of ...
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One prophage WO gene rescues cytoplasmic incompatibility in Drosophila melanogaster

Shropshire, J. D., J. On, E. M. Layton, H. Zhou and S. R. Bordenstein,  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,  115:4987. 2018.
The World Health Organization recommended pilot deployment of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes to curb viral transmission to humans. Releases of mosquitoes are underway worldwide because Wolbachia can block replication of these pathogenic viruses and deterministically spread by a ...
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Evolutionary genetics of cytoplasmic incompatibility genes cifA and cifB in prophage WO of Wolbachia

Lindsey, A. R. I., D. W. Rice, S. R. Bordenstein, A. W. Brooks, S. R. Bordenstein and I. L. G. Newton,  Genome Biology and Evolution,  10:434-451. 2018.
The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia manipulates arthropod reproduction to facilitate its maternal spread through host populations. The most common manipulation is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI): Wolbachia-infected males produce modified sperm that cause embryonic mortality, ...
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A Wolbachia deubiquitylating enzyme induces cytoplasmic incompatibility

Beckmann, J. F., J. A. Ronau and M. Hochstrasser,  Nature Microbiology,  2:17007. 2017.
Wolbachia are obligate intracellular bacteria1 that infect arthropods, including approximately two-thirds of insect species2. Wolbachia manipulate insect reproduction by enhancing their inheritance through the female germline. The most common alteration is cytoplasmic ...
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Concept and history of genetic control

Scott, M. J. and Benedict, M. Q.,  Genetic Control of Malaria and Dengue,  2:31-54. 2016.
Genetic control of insects is an established method, mainly for insects that are important crop and veterinary pests such as medflies and screwworm. Efforts to use the same technologies against insects of medical importance, especially mosquitoes, have had limited success. The ...
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Selfish genes in mosquitos

C. F. Curtis,  Nature,  357:450. 1992.
Hurst and coUeagues1.2 state that "within any population of [the mosquito] Culex pipiens there are two sorts of individual, those that bear/harbour Wolbachia [bacteria] and those that do not". But, according to Yen and Barr3, all wild-type C. pipiens appropriately examined ...
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Population replacement in Culex-fatigans by means of cytoplasmic incompatibility .2. Field cage experiments with overlapping generations

C. F. Curtis,  Bulletin of the World Health Organization,  53:107-119. 1976.
Three experiments were carried out in field cages to test the principle of " transport" of a desirable gene or chromosome into a wild Culex fatigans population as a result of the sterility in cross-matings associated with cytoplasmic incompatibility. Cycling populations of Delhi ...
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Population replacement in Culex fatigens by means of cytoplasmic incompatibility. Laboratory experiments with non-overlapping generations

C. F. Curtis and T. Adak,  Bulletin of the World Health Organization,  51:249-255. 1974.
Bidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility in the Culex pipiens complex appears to provide a mechanism for the replacement of a wild population by a strain refractory to filaria or a strain made partly sterile by a translocation. As a preliminary test of the feasibility of the ...
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Eradication of Culex pipiens fatigans through cytoplasmic incompatibility.

H. Laven,  Nature,  216:383. 1967.
Culex pipiens fatigans is the chief vector of filariasis in south-east Asia. Urbanization has often caused the numbers of this mosquito-and with it the danger of filariasis infection-to increase alarmingly. The natural vigour, tolerance and fast development of resistance to ...
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