Keywords: risk

New molecular genetic techniques: regulatory and societal considerations

Nielsen, K. M.,  AREA-WIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: Development and Field Application,  2021.
A rapidly expanding toolbox of techniques available for genome editing provides the basis for a new continuum in types of modifications that can be introduced into a genome and blur the bimodal GMO vs. non-GMO (genetically modified organism) divide. Site-directed nucleases (SDN) ...
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Genome editing and its applications for insect pest control: Curse or blessing?

Hacker, I. , and Schetelig, M. F,  AREA-WIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: Development and Field Application,  2021.
Gene and genome editing are described as cutting-edge research tools with the potential to tackle urgent global challenges in the management of agricultural pests and human disease vectors such as mosquitoes. The field is defined by the chances and challenges to interlink the ...
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Gene drives in malaria control: what we need to know

R. Mudziwapasi, M. C. Changara, A. Ndudzo, T. Kaseke, F. Godobo, F. L. Mtemeli, R. Shoko, F. Songwe, S. Ndlovu and S. Sandra Mlambo,  Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment,  35:1623-1631. 2021.
Gene drives are being used to enhance a DNA sequence?s likelihood of passing between generations via sexual reproduction. Gene drives can be deployed to manipulate natural populations. They can be used to suppress populations by reducing the number of individuals in a population ...
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Genome Editing Tools and Gene Drives: A Brief Overview (1st ed.).

R. Mudziwapasi, R. Chekera, C. Z. Ncube, I. Shoko, B. Ncube, T. Moyo, J. G. Chimbo, J. Dube, F. F. Mashiri, M. A. Mubani, D. Maruta, C. Chimbo, M. Masuku, R. Shoko, R. P. Nyamusamba and F. N. Jomane,  CRC Press,  2021.
Genome-editing methods are becoming routine tools for molecular and cell biologists. Such tools include ZFNs, CRISPR, megaTALs and TALENs. These tools are revolutionizing the creation of precisely manipulated genomes to modify the characteristics of organisms or cells. ...
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Ecological vulnerability analysis for suppression of Drosophila suzukii by gene drives

C. R. Lalyer, L. Sigsgaard and B. Giese,  Global Ecology and Conservation,  32:e01883. 2021.
Synthetic gene drives are transgenic constructs that aim to bias heredity and thereby influence the characteristics and fate of populations regarding abundance and evolution. Aside from irreversible effects in ecosystems that could be triggered by the release of a gene drive, ...
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Decision and Analysis Tools for Complex Problems

Hector Quemada and David O'Brochta,  GeneConvene Global Collaborative,  2021.
The challenges associated with the multiple phases of testing and possible deployment of gene drive-containing organisms appear to have similarities to those associated with various aspects of invasive species management. Preventing unwanted spread of the target species as well ...
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Calling the latest gene technologies ‘natural’ is a semantic distraction — they must still be regulated

J. A. Heinemann, D. J. Paull, S. Walker and B. Kurenbach,  The Conversation,  2021.
Legislators around the world are being asked to reconsider how to regulate the latest developments in gene technology, genome editing and gene silencing. Both the European Court of Justice and the New Zealand High Court have ruled that genome editing techniques should remain ...
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New report demands moratorium on gene drives

GM Watch,  GM Watch,  2021.
To help the public understand what's at stake, the Germany-based NGO Save Our Seeds (SOS) has published a report, "Gene Drives: The New Dimension of Genetic Engineering", which can be downloaded as a pdf document. The report provides a scientifically founded overview of how ...
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Gene Drive Organisms: A new dimension of genetic engineering

V. Henn and M. Imken,  Save Our Seeds,  2021.
Enabled by new genetic engineering techniques such as CRISPR/Cas9, so-called gene drives have been developed in recent years that enable humans to spread new genes throughout the genome of wild animal populations. Gene drives force the inheritance of newly introduced genes to be ...
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The viral era

B. Giese,  EMBO reports,  22:e53229. 2021.
New biotechnologies such as gene drives and engineered viruses herald a viral era that would give humans exceptional power over any organism at the level of the genotype. In synthetic biology, orthogonality—in the sense of lack of interference—between different systems or ...
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The international governance of gene drive organisms

F. Rabitz,  Environmental Politics,  2021.
Gene Drive Organisms (GDOs) are a proposed biotechnological intervention that might generate significant benefits for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity while also raising critical biosafety issues. Despite their inevitable transboundary effects, their ...
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Gene Drives – Engineering the Wild

L. Sharratt,  Sentinel,  2021.
So far, genetically engineered organisms have been mostly limited to agricultural use, with partial success. Around the world, a few major crops (mostly corn, soy, and cotton) are genetically engineered, predominantly for herbicide tolerance and insect resistance. However, the ...
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Autocatalytic-protection for an unknown locus CRISPR-Cas countermeasure for undesired mutagenic chain reactions

E. Schonfeld, E. Schonfeld and D. Schonfeld,  Journal of Theoretical Biology,  528:110831. 2021.
The mutagenic chain reaction (MCR) is a genetic tool to use a CRISPR–Cas construct to introduce a homing endonuclease, allowing gene drive to influence whole populations in a minimal number of generations (Esvelt et al., 2014, Gantz and Bier, 2015, Gantz and Bier, 2016). The ...
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Earth system interventions as technologies of the Anthropocene

J. L. Reynolds,  Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions,  40:132-146. 2021.
Earth system interventions (ESIs)—intentional large-scale interventions in Earth systems—are not entirely new. However, in response to threats to sustainability, particularly from climate change and biodiversity loss, some scientists and others are researching, developing, ...
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Africa Turning to Gene Drive Technology for Malaria Elimination

M. Hearty,  Science Africa,  2021.
With Africa accounting for nine out of ten malaria cases globally, the continent is turning to gene drive technology to control the disease. This is according to a decision made by African leaders at the 29th Summit of Heads of States and Governments of the African Union held in ...
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West African countries working together to develop framework to regulate genetically engineered mosquitos: Target Malaria

Anonymous,  Global News,  2021.
Abdoulaye Diabaté, principal investigator for Target Malaria, says West African countries like Burkina Faso, Mali and Benin are working with the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) to develop a pan-West African framework to regulate gene drive mosquitos.
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‘Nigeria has capacity for safe application of modern biotechnology’

M. Adewale,  The Guardian,  2021.
Director-general of the National Biosafety Management Agency (NBMA), Dr. Rufus Ebegba, has declared that Nigeria has the capacity to deploy safe biotechnology products for agricultural development and environmental safety. Ebegba, who gave the assurance at the opening of a ...
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European Parliament calls for ban on gene drive technology

Save Our Seeds,  Save Our Seeds,  2021.
The European Parliament yesterday confirmedi it‘s precautionary stance towards the use of a new genetic engineering technology called gene drive. In its report on the EU’s Biodiversity Strategy for 2030, adopted at the European Parliament’s plenary on 08.06.2021, ...
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Analysis of off-target effects in CRISPR-based gene drives in the human malaria mosquito

W. T. Garrood, N. Kranjc, K. Petri, D. Y. Kim, J. A. Guo, A. M. Hammond, I. Morianou, V. Pattanayak, J. K. Joung, A. Crisanti and A. Simoni,  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,  118:e2004838117. 2021.
CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease-based gene drives have been developed toward the aim of control of the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Gene drives are based on an active source of Cas9 nuclease in the germline that promotes super-Mendelian inheritance of the transgene by ...
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Driving genetic destruction

Anonymous,  Alliance for Natural Health,  2021.
Genetically-engineered (GE) mosquitoes have been released in a number of countries, including the US. We’ve known for some time that these experiments have not gone to plan, but a new paper provides a better understanding of how they’ve went awry, and provides a harrowing ...
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Oxitec Receives Landmark Biosafety Approval for New Fall Armyworm Control Solution

Oxitec,  Oxitec,  2021.
Approval of Oxitec’s Friendly™ fall armyworm technology by the Brazilian government’s regulatory agency CTNBio confirms that it is safe for people, animals and the environment. Oxitec’s Friendly™ fall armyworm is a new, safe, and sustainable solution to one of the ...
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Experimenting with co-development: a qualitative study of gene drive research for malaria control in Mali

S. Hartley, K. Ledingham, R. Owen, S. Leonelli, S. Diarra and S. Diop,  Social Science and Medicine,  2021.
Our findings suggest co-development is opening up previously expert-dominated spaces as researchers attempt to take responsibility for the societal implications of their work. However, its main function is as a project management tool to enable and instrumentally support ...
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Differentiated impacts of human interventions on nature: Scaling the conversation on regulation of gene technologies

J. A. Heinemann, D. J. Paull, S. Walker and B. Kurenbach,  Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene,  9. 2021.
Biotechnology describes a range of human activities in medicine, agriculture, and environmental management. One biotechnology in particular, gene technology, continues to evolve both in capacity and potential to benefit and harm society. The purpose of this article is to offer a ...
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Population genomics of invasive rodents on islands: Genetic consequences of colonization and prospects for localized synthetic gene drive

K. P. Oh, A. B. Shiels, L. Shiels, D. V. Blondel, K. J. Campbell, J. R. Saah, A. L. Lloyd, P. Q. Thomas, F. Gould, Z. Abdo, J. R. Godwin and A. J. Piaggio,  Evolutionary Applications,  2021.
Here we used pooled whole-genome sequencing of invasive mouse (Mus musculus) populations on four islands along with paired putative source populations to test genetic predictions of island colonization and characterize locally fixed Cas9 genomic targets. Patterns of variation ...
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Emergent challenges for CRISPR: biosafety, biosecurity, patenting, and regulatory issues

Braddick, D. , and Ramarohetra, R. F.,  Genome Engineering Via Crispr-Cas9 System,  2021.
The recent advancements of CRISPR-Cas technologies have transformed this simple and efficient gene editing technique into an extraordinarily powerful tool. The most anticipated applications could create novel therapeutics against mankind's most serious afflictions and help ...
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Scientifically framed gene drive communication perceived as credible but riskier

E. A. MacDonald, E. D. Edwards, J. Balanovic and F. Medvecky,  People and Nature,  2021.
Framing is a communication technique in which certain beliefs or values are emphasized that resonate with the target audience. Framing may increase how much people objectively think about new information and update their opinions; framing may mitigate emo
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A Code of Ethics for Gene Drive Research

G. J. Annas, C. L. Beisel, K. Clement, A. Crisanti, S. Francis, M. Galardini, R. Galizi, J. Grünewald, G. Immobile, A. S. Khalil, R. Müller, V. Pattanayak, K. Petri, L. Paul, L. Pinello, A. Simoni, C. Taxiarchi and J. K. Joung,  The CRISPR Journal,  2021.
A code of ethics can be a useful tool for all parties involved in the development and regulation of gene drives and can be used to help ensure that a balanced analysis of risks, benefits, and values is taken into consideration for the interest of society and humanity. We have ...
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Les Européens très critiques vis-à-vis du forçage génétique

L. Duboua-Lorsch,  EURACTIV,  2021.
Cette technique, qui vise à éradiquer ou modifier certaines espèces dites nuisibles, sera au cœur des négociations cette année, alors que se profile la COP15 sur la biodiversité. maginez un monde débarrassé d’insectes porteurs de maladies, de parasites agricoles, ...
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GENE DRIVE ACCEPTANCE SURVEY

YouGov,  Pollinis,  2021.
This representative survey was conducted by the international market research institute YouGov and polled 8.826 citizens from 8 EU countries in December 2020. It was commissioned by WeMove Europe, Save Our Seeds (Germany), Skiftet (Sweden), France Nature Environnement (FNE) ...
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Playing God and tampering with nature: popular labels for real concerns in synthetic biology

L. Carter, A. Mankad, E. V. Hobman and N. B. Porter,  Transgenic Research,  2021.
We present the findings from a large Australian study (N = 4593) which suggests ‘playing God’ objections and their variants can be multilayered and, at times, accompanied by meaningful information about risk perceptions. We use qualitative analysis of ope
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RNAi-based products: A sustainable alternative to hazardous pesticides

Ghent University,  Phys Org,  2021.
RNAi-based biocontrol is a great alternative to hazardous pesticides and can contribute towards reversing the alarming decline in farmland birds and beneficial insects (especially pollinating ones). RNAi is a well-known natural biological process in most
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Exploring Gene Drive Technologies in Agriculture, Biodiversity and Human Disease

The GBIRd Partnership and The GeneConvene Global Collaborative,  Gene Drive Research Forum,  2021.
The GBIRd Partnership and The GeneConvene Global Collaborative recently collaborated through The Gene Drive Research Forum, to create and produce an engaging conversation between Drs. Fred Gould and Charles Godfray about gene drive technologies – the potential benefits and ...
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New GE unintentionally leaves traces in cells

C. Then,  Testbiotech,  2020.
A new scientific publication shows that CRISPR/Cas gene scissor applications in animals unintentionally leave traces. The findings are not related to unintended changes in the DNA, which have often been described, but to gene regulation, i.e. epigenetics. The effects are ...
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Scientists paved the way for field trials of gene-driven organisms

K. Winslet,  FLORIDA News Times,  2020.
The recent rise of gene drive research, accelerated by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology, has brought about a wave of transformation throughout science.Developed with selected traits that have been genetically engineered to spread throughout the population, Gene Drive ...
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Technical Support to Burkina Faso on Gene Drive Stage 2 Dossier Review

AUDA-NEPAD,  AUDA-NEPAD,  2020.
AUDA-NEPAD in partnership with the National Biosafety Agency (ANB) in Burkina Faso organised a training workshop to support to the National Biosafety Committee (NBC) on stage 2 dossier review, on December 3 – 5, 2020, in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. In addition to the NBC ...
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Gene Drive-Modified Organisms: Developing Practical Risk Assessment Guidance

Y. Devos, M. B. Bonsall, L. G. Firbank, J. Mumford, F. Nogué and E. A. Wimmer,  Trends in Biotechnology,  2020.
Risk assessors, risk managers, developers, potential applicants, and other stakeholders at many levels discuss the need for new or further risk assessment guidance for deliberate environmental releases of gene drive-modified organisms. However, preparing useful and practical ...
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Scientists Set a Path for Field Trials of Gene Drive Organisms

M. Aguilera,  UC San Diego News Center,  2020.
The modern rise of gene drive research, accelerated by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology, has led to transformational waves rippling across science. Gene drive organisms (GDOs), developed with select traits that are genetically engineered to spread through a population, have ...
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Burkina Faso Stakeholders consultations on Gene Drive Technology for integrated vector management towards malaria elimination

AUDA-NEPAD,  AUDA-NEPAD,  2020.
Under its flagship Integrated Vector Management (IVM) Programme, African Union Development Agency (AUDA-NEPAD) in partnership with the National biosafety agency (ANB) of Burkina Faso organized an information sharing workshop on the applications of "Gene Drive" technology and ...
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Evaluating Gene Drive Approaches for Public Benefit

M. R. Santos,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
Gene drive approaches—those which bias inheritance of a genetic element in a population of sexually reproducing organisms—have the potential to provide important public benefits. The spread of selected genetic elements in wild populations of organisms may help address certain ...
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Engineered Gene Drives and their Value in the Control of Vector-Borne Diseases, Weeds, Pests, and Invasive Species

K. Hefferon and R. Herring,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
Genetic engineering has created potential for moving medical and agricultural research and application frontiers forward in unprecedented ways. Despite its accepted use as a powerful tool in medical research, genetic modification and genome editing technologies remain ...
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Engineered Gene Drives: Ecological, Environmental, and Societal Concerns

J. Kuzma,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
This chapter overviews the types, purposes, and potential impacts of gene drive organisms (GDOs) and discusses challenges with foreseeing and assessing these impacts prior to their environmental release. It concludes with a few examples of risk analysis methods and governance ...
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Genetically Engineered Fish: Potential Impacts on Aquaculture, Biodiversity, and the Environment

R. A. Dunham and B. Su,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
Studies on transgenic fish for the aquaculture industry have focused on improving growth rates, enhancing disease resistance, altering body composition, acting as biological factories for medical proteins, and even altering temperature tolerance and coloration. The future impact ...
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Invasive Species Control and Resolution of Wildlife Damage Conflicts: A Framework for Chemical and Genetically Based Management Methods

L. Clark, J. Eisemann, J. Godwin, K. E. Horak, K. Oh, J. O’Hare, A. Piaggio, K. Pepin and E. Ruell,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
Vertebrate wildlife damage management relates to developing and employing methods to mitigate against damage caused by wildlife in the areas of food production, property damage, and animal or human health and safety. Of the many management tools available
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GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes

Chaurasia, Anurag , Hawksworth, David L., Pessoa de Miranda, Manoela.,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
This book covers a broad spectrum of topics related to GMOs and allied new gene-based technologies, biodiversity, and ecosystem processes, bringing together the contributions of researchers and regulators from around the world. The aim is to offer a clear view of the benefits and ...
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FNIH Panel on Gene Drive Regulation Emphasizes Need for Local Community Engagement

C. Rizk,  GenomeWeb,  2020.
Genetically modified organisms are another topic of deep debate, with some activists agitating for and getting governments to implement deep restrictions on modified crops. More recently, GMO crops have started to regain public favor, particularly in countries where boosting the ...
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Engineering biological diversity: the international governance of synthetic biology, gene drives, and de-extinction for conservation

J. L. Reynolds,  Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability,  49:1-6. 2020.
In the face of insufficient progress in conserving and restoring biodiversity, the in situ use of advanced genetic modification, gene drives, and other biotechnologies for conservation purposes are being considered, researched, and developed. This paper introduces the methods, ...
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Further guidance required for assessment of gene drive technology, says EFSA

Euractiv,  The World News Monitor,  2020.
Existing guidelines are adequate for evaluating risks associated with gene-drive modified insects, but further guidance is needed for some areas, most notably for environmental risk assessments. The evaluation was requested to explore the issue ahead of the consideration of any ...
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Mutagenic chain reaction cannot be sufficiently controlled

Christoph Then,  Testbiotech,  2020.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has published the results of its public consultation on the risks of so-called gene drive organisms. Testbiotech accuses the authority of disguising the real dimension of the risks. Gene drives are designed to spread artificial genetic ...
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Outcome of a public consultation on the draft adequacy and sufficiency evaluation of existing EFSA guidelines for the molecular characterisation, environmental risk assessment and post-market environmental monitoring of genetically modified insects containing engineered gene drives

European Food Safety Authority, Y. Devos, M. B. Bonsall, F. Nogué, K. Paraskevopoulos, E. A. Wimmer and L. G. Firbank,  EFSA Supporting Publications,  17:1939E. 2020.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) carried out an online public consultation to receive input from interested parties/persons on the draftscientific opinion on the adequacy and sufficiencyevaluation of existing guidelines for the molecular characterisation (MC), ...
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Gene drives, species, and compassion for individuals in conservation biology

Y. Rohwer,  Ethics, Policy and Environment,  2020.
In this paper I argue that these compassionate conservationists have a moral obligation to support the investigation and development of genetic modification technologies because of their potential to minimize suffering and eliminate killing in conservation. Furthermore, I will ...
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Novel and Exceptional Technology and Research Advisory Committee – NExTRAC -NIH

NIH Office of Science Policy,  National Institutes of Health (NIH),  2020.
NExTRAC provides advice to the Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on matters related to the conduct and oversight of research involving emerging technologies in biomedical science. NExTRAC also makes recommendations on research involving the use of, and ...
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When Extinction is Warranted: Invasive Species, Suppression-Drives, and the Worst-Case Scenario

A. C. Thresher,  Ethics, Policy and Environment,  2020.
The focus of this paper is on one such risk ? the danger of a suppression-drive escaping containment and wiping out the target species globally. Here, I argue that in most cases this risk is significant enough to warrant holding off on the technology. In some cases, however, we ...
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Brave New Planet: Reshaping Nature Through Gene Drives

E. Lander,  Brave New Planet,  2020.
A new technology, called gene drives, has the power to spread any genetic instructions you wish across an entire animal or plant species in the wild. It might let us restore ecosystems ravaged by invasive species, or help species adapt to climate change. And, it might save ...
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