Keywords: policy

Assessing potential hybridization between a hypothetical gene drive-modified Drosophila suzukii and nontarget Drosophila species

S. Wolf, J. Collatz, J. Enkerli, F. Widmer and J. Romeis,  Risk Analysis,  2023.
Genetically engineered gene drives (geGD) are potentially powerful tools for suppressing or even eradicating populations of pest insects. Before living geGD insects can be released into the environment, they must pass an environmental risk assessment to ensure that their release ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Environmental, Socio-economic, and Health Impact Assessment (ESHIA) for Gene Drive Organisms

isaaa Inc. and Outreach Network for Gene Drive Research,  ISAAA,  2023.
Understanding the possible positive and negative impacts that gene drive organisms could have on the environment and people is essential before these technologies are considered for release, whether for research purposes or for use. Different impacts are assessed through ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene editing and agrifood systems

FAO,  FAO,  2022.
Gene-editing technologies represent a promising new tool for plant and animal breeding in low- and middle-income countries. They enhance precision and efficiency over current breeding methods and could lead to rapid development of improved plant varieties and animal breeds. ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Exploring the value of a global gene drive project registry

R. I. Taitingfong, C. Triplett, V. N. Vásquez, R. M. Rajagopalan, R. Raban, A. Roberts, G. Terradas, B. Baumgartner, C. Emerson, F. Gould, F. Okumu, C. E. Schairer, H. C. Bossin, L. Buchman, K. J. Campbell, A. Clark, J. Delborne, K. Esvelt, J. Fisher, R.,  Nature Biotechnology,  2022.
Recent calls to establish a global project registry before releasing any gene-drive-modified organisms (GDOs) have suggested a registry could be valuable to coordinate research, collect data to monitor and evaluate potential ecological impacts, and facilitate transparent ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Experts urge caution over biotech that can wipe out insect pests

L. Fauvel,  Phys Org,  2022.
Dozens of scientists, experts and campaigners called for a ban on the release of genetically-edited organisms into the wild, in a statement Friday warning of potentially severe risks to the world's pollinators. The appeal was launched at crunch biodiversity talks in Montreal, ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

East African policy dialogue on research of genetically modified mosquitoes for malaria control and elimination

C. Mugoya,  Target Malaria,  2022.
The East African Community Secretariat, in collaboration with the East African Health Research Commission; NEPAD, AFIDEP and IFAKARA Health Institute recently convened an East African regional dialogue in Dar es salaam, Tanzania from 17-19 November 2022 to deliberate the way ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

No Environmental Release of Gene Drive Organisms

Anonymous,  STOP GENE DRIVES,  2022.
We urge governments to prevent the environmental release of gene drive organisms and to establish a global moratorium on the release of gene drive organisms at the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Gene drives work against natural rules of inheritance forcing nearly ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Influence of public hesitancy and receptivity on reactive behaviours towards releases of male Wolbachia-Aedes mosquitoes for dengue control

M. O. Lwin, Z. Ong, C. Panchapakesan, A. Sheldenkar, L. T. Soh, I. Chen, X. Li, W. Niah, K. Vasquez, S. Sim and L.-C. Ng,  PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases,  16:e0010910. 2022.
Singapore, a highly urbanized Asian tropical country that experiences periodic dengue outbreaks, is piloting field releases of male Wolbachia-carrying Aedes aegyptimosquitoes with the aim of suppressing urban populations of the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. This study ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

WORLDWIDE: EXPERTS ON GENE DRIVES

Stop Gene Drive,  STOP GENE DRIVES,  2022.
We are travelling the world speaking to some of the world’s leading thinkers, activists and academics on the impact of gene drives. We interviewed more than 20 experts from around the world
Keywords: , , , , ,

Ethics of gene drive mosquitoes for malaria elimination

A. J. Roberts,  McMaster University,  2022.
This thesis is concerned with presenting analyses regarding key ethical issues regarding and arising from the development and potential use of gene drive modified mosquitoes for the purpose of malaria elimination. Each of the chapters constituting this thesis offers a rigorously ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Risk Assessment on the Release of Wolbachia-Infected Aedes aegypti in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

D. Buchori, A. Mawan, I. Nurhayati, A. Aryati, H. Kusnanto and U. K. Hadi,  Insects,  13. 2022.
Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti is the latest technology that was developed to eliminate dengue fever. The Ministry of Research and Technology of the Republic of Indonesia (Kemenristekdikti) established an expert group to identify future potential risks that may occur over a ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Points to consider in seeking biosafety approval for research, testing, and environmental release of experimental genetically modified biocontrol products during research and development

W. K. Tonui, V. Ahuja, C. J. Beech, J. B. Connolly, B. Dass, D. C. M. Glandorf, et al.,  Transgenic Research,  2022.
Novel genetically modified biological control products (referred to as “GM biocontrol products”) are being considered to address a range of complex problems in public health, conservation, and agriculture, including preventing the transmission of vector-borne parasitic and ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Justifying an Intentional Species Extinction: The Case of Anopheles gambiae

D. E. Callies and Y. Rohwer,  Environmental Values,  31:193-210. 2022.
Each year, over 200 million people are infected with the malaria parasite, nearly half a million of whom succumb to the disease. Emerging genetic technologies could, in theory, eliminate the burden of malaria throughout the world by intentionally eradicating the mosquitoes that ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Toward product-based regulation of crops

F. Gould, R. M. Amasino, D. Brossard, C. R. Buell, R. A. Dixon, J. B. Falck-Zepeda, M. A. Gallo, K. E. Giller, L. L. Glenna, T. Griffin, D. Magraw, C. Mallory-Smith, K. V. Pixley, E. P. Ransom, D. M. Stelly and C. N. Stewart,  Science,  377:1051-1053. 2022.
Current process-based approaches to regulation are no longer fit for purpose Much effort has been expended globally over the past four decades to craft and update country-specific and multinational safety regulations that can be applied to crops developed by genetic engineering ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Researchers propose new framework for regulating engineered crops

North Carolina State University,  Phys Org,  2022.
A Policy Forum article published today in Science calls for a new approach to regulating genetically engineered (GE) crops, arguing that current approaches for triggering safety testing vary dramatically among countries and generally lack scientific merit—particularly as ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

ISAAA Policy Brief: Risk Assessment for Gene Drive Organisms

Anonymous,  ISAAA,  2022.
Gene drive is a genetic phenomenon that occurs in nature and causes a selected trait to spread rapidly through a species via sexual reproduction over generations, potentially becoming increasingly common within a specific species. Gene drive systems are being developed in the ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Infravec2 guidelines for the design and operation of containment level 2 and 3 insectaries in Europe

E. Pondeville, A.-B. Failloux, F. Simard, P. Volf, A. Crisanti, R. E. Haghighat-Khah, N. Busquets, F. X. Abad, A. J. Wilson, R. Bellini, S. Marsh Arnaud, A. Kohl and E. Veronesi,  Pathogens and Global Health,  2022.
ABSTRACTWith the current expansion of vector-based research and an increasing number of facilities rearing arthropod vectors and infecting them with pathogens, common measures for containment of arthropods as well as manipulation of pathogens are becoming essential for the design ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Environmentally appropriate vector control is facilitated by standard metrics for simulation-based evaluation

V. N. Vásquez, M. R. Reddy and J. M. Marshall,  Frontiers in Tropical Diseases,  3. 2022.
As anthropogenic factors contribute to the introduction and expansion of new and established vector species, the geographic incidence of mosquito-borne disease is shifting. Computer simulations, informed by field data where possible, facilitate the cost-effective evaluation of ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Natural selfish genetic elements should not be defined as gene drives

M. A. Wells and R. A. Steinbrecher,  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,  119:e2201142119. 2022.
Gene drives are increasingly discussed in the political realm,and how the term is defined therefore has important impli-cations. The opinion piece from Alphey et al. (1) identifies alack of consensus on the definition and makes explicitchanges in how the terminology is being used ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

What do we mean by “Target Organism” in Target Malaria’s gene drive research?

J. B. Connolly,  Target Malaria,  2022.
In the wild and in laboratory settings, sibling mosquito species can successfully mate to produce viable offspring, regardless of whether they are vectors or not. Importantly, females, but not males, of these offspring can be fertile. Nonetheless, the likelihood of finding such ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Drive in Species Complexes: Defining Target Organisms

J. B. Connolly, J. Romeis, Y. Devos, D. C. M. Glandorf, G. Turner and M. B. Coulibaly,  Trends in Biotechnology,  2022.
Engineered gene drives, which bias their own inheritance to increase in frequency in target populations, are being developed to control mosquito malaria vectors. Such mosquitoes can belong to complexes of both vector and non-vector species that can produce fertile interspecific ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Larval mosquito management and risk to aquatic ecosystems: A comparative approach including current tactics and gene-drive Anopheles techniques

R. K. D. Peterson and M. G. Rolston,  Transgenic Research,  2022.
Genetic engineering of mosquitoes represents a promising tactic for reducing human suffering from malaria. Gene-drive techniques being developed that suppress or modify populations of Anopheles gambiae have the potential to be used with, or even possibly obviate, microbial and ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Public perspectives towards using gene drive for invasive species management in Australia

A. Mankad, E. V. Hobman and L. Carter,  CSIRO,  2022.
Many pest animal species live and reproduce in high numbers across Australia. This includes animal species, such as cane toads, feral cats, foxes, rodents, wild pigs, wild rabbits. These species significantly damage Australia’s agricultural industries, natural landscapes, and ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Public deliberation and the regulation of gene drive in the USA

W. F. West, L. W. Buchman and R. F. Medina,  Science and Public Policy,  scac032. 2022.
Gene drive is a new form of biotechnology designed to bias the inheritance of selected traits in animal or plant species that reproduce sexually and have relatively short reproductive cycles. Unlike traditional breeding techniques and other forms of biotechnology, gene drive is ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Genetically Modified Mosquitoes to Fight Malaria in Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Mali and Uganda: What Legal Response?

O. J. L. Tung,  Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal,  25:1-42. 2022.
Advanced applied research on genetically modified (hereafter GM) insects is being undertaken to control insect vectors of human diseases such as mosquitoes. GM insect technologies are being developed in countries where there is a legal ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Who decides whether to use gene drives against malaria-carrying mosquitoes?

T. H. Saey,  ScienceNews,  2022.
The gene drive interferes with the insects’ ability to reproduce. It wiped out captive populations of mosquitoes in eight to 12 generations (SN: 10/27/18, p. 6) in a small lab study. In 2021, the technology worked in the large cages in Terni, Italy, too. Within as little as ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

The principles driving gene drives for conservation

S. Hartley, R. Taitingfong and P. Fidelman,  Environmental Science and Policy,  135:36-45. 2022.
Gene drive technology is an emerging biotechnology with the potential to address some of the most intractable global biodiversity conservation issues. Scientists are exploring potential gene drive applications for managing invasive species and building resilience in keystone ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

The Financialisation of Malaria in Africa: Burkina Faso, rogue capital & GM/gene drive mosquitoes

S. Mentz-Lagrange and S. Swanepoel,  African Centre for Biodiversity,  2022.
This paper seeks to understand the financialisation of malaria as a vehicle for rogue capital in a context of a weakened state (through capture, corruption and coups) and the power that limits effective interventions. It shows how malaria, along with other diseases, is ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Governing Gene Drive Technologies: A Qualitative Interview Study

N. de Graeff, K. R. Jongsma, J. E. Lunshof and A. L. Bredenoord,  AJOB Empirical Bioethics,  13:107-124. 2022.
Gene drive technologies (GDTs) bias the inheritance of a genetic element within a population of non-human organisms, promoting its progressive spread across this population. If successful, GDTs may be used to counter intractable problems such as vector-borne diseases. A key issue ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

UC Davis — Malaria Gene Drive Feasibility Analysis

Good Ventures,  Good Ventures,  2022.
Open Philanthropy recommended a grant of $10,248,967 over three years to UC Davis to support subsequent stages of a feasibility analysis of a potential test of gene drives for malaria control on the adjoining West African islands of São Tomé and Príncipe. The work, led by Dr. ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Opening up, closing down, or leaving ajar? How applications are used in engaging with publics about gene drive

A. W. Russell, A. Stelmach, S. Hartley, L. Carter and S. Raman,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  2022.
Public engagement and responsible innovation are strongly emphasised in gene drive research, together with the goal of addressing societal challenges, notably, malaria and environmental conservation. We aim to explore whether public engagement is used to ‘open up' or ‘close ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

The power of gene editing

The Economist,  The Economist,  2022.
Technologies such as genetic modification and ‘CRISPR’ will cure hereditary diseases, produce disease-resistant crops and enable the breeding of malaria-free mosquitos. But advances bring ethical and practical dilemmas. Genetically modified food is banned in the EU, and ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Could species-focused suppression of Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, and Aedes albopictus, the tiger mosquito, affect interacting predators? An evidence synthesis from the literature

J. A. S. Bonds, C. M. Collins and L.-C. Gouagna,  Pest Management Science,  2022.
The risks of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus nuisance and vector-borne diseases are rising and the adverse effects of broad-spectrum insecticide application has promoted species-specific techniques, such as sterile insect technique (SIT) and other genetic strategies, as ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Regulation of genetically engineered (GE) mosquitoes as a public health tool: a public health ethics analysis

Z. Meghani,  Globalization and Health,  18:21. 2022.
In recent years, genetically engineered (GE) mosquitoes have been proposed as a public health measure against the high incidence of mosquito-borne diseases among the poor in regions of the global South. While uncertainties as well as risks for humans and ecosystems are entailed ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

A preliminary framework for understanding the governance of novel environmental technologies: Ambiguity, indeterminateness and drift

F. Rabitz, M. Feist, M. Honegger, J. Horton, S. Jinnah and J. Reynolds,  Earth System Governance,  12:100134. 2022.
We propose a conceptual framework to explain why some technologies are more difficult to govern than others in global environmental governance. We start from the observation that some technologies pose transboundary environmental risks, some provide capacities for managing such ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Editing Is Popular, But Controversial, Research Are

Relias,  RELIAS MEDIA,  2022.
Gene drive research carries great potential for controlling insect vectors of devastating diseases, but there are multiple unresolved ethical concerns. Unanticipated “downstream” effects on ecosystems, or in organisms that carry the gene drive machinery, are possible. To help ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Drives in the U.K., U.S., and Australian Press (2015–2019): How a New Focus on Responsibility Is Shaping Science Communication

A. Stelmach, B. Nerlich and S. Hartley,  Science Communication,  10755470211072245. 2022.
Gene drive is a controversial biotechnology for pest control. Despite a commitment from gene drive researchers to responsibility and the key role of the media in debates about science and technology, little research has been conducted on media reporting of gene drive. We employ ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Ethical Considerations for Gene Drive: Challenges of Balancing Inclusion, Power and Perspectives

A. Kormos, G. C. Lanzaro, E. Bier, V. Santos, L. Nazare, J. Pinto, A. A. dos Santos and A. James,  Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology,  2022.
Progress in gene-drive research has stimulated discussion and debate on ethical issues including community engagement and consent, policy and governance, and decision-making involved in development and deployment. Many organizations, academic institutions, foundations, and ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

IMPACTOS AMBIENTAIS DA TÉCNICA DE GENE DRIVE PARA O CONTROLE DE EPIDEMIAS: ALCANCES E LIMITES DO PRINCÍPIO DA PRECAUÇÃO

N. R. Furtado,  PERI Revista de Filosofia,  13. 2022.
The paper discusses the application of the precautionary principle in the management of environmental risks arising from the use of gene drives to control epidemics. Gene drives consist of a technique for creating genetically modified organisms, which are released into an ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Insect Allies – Assessment of a Viral Approach to Plant Genome Editing

K. Pfeifer, J. L. Frieß and B. Giese,  Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management,  2022.
The DARPA program Insect Allies has already sparked scientific debate concerning technology assessment-related issues, among which the most prevalent is that of dual use potential. As apart from the issues concerning peaceful applications, the technology also provides the ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

The Need for a Tiered Registry for US Gene Drive Governance

K. L. Warmbrod, A. L. Kobokovich, R. West, G. K. Gronvall and M. Montague,  Health Security,  2022.
A great deal of attention has been focused on the potential risks of gene drives, the kinds of biosafety protections they may require, and how they may be reversed; however, less attention has been paid to the systems that would be useful to have in place in the future, when ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

An Introduction to Containment Recommendations for Gene Drive Mosquitoes and the Laboratory Rearing of Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes in Africa

S. Higgs,  Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases,  2022.
The prospect of using genetically engineered arthropods to reduce the incidence of vector-borne diseases either indirectly by suppressing vector populations or directly by replacing wild-type vector species with less competent ones has long been discussed; however, only in the ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Information Sharing in Senegal on the Gene Drive Technology as a potential Complementary Tool for Malaria Vector Control

AUDA-NEPAD,  AUDA-NEPAD,  2022.
AUDA-NEPAD in partnership with the National Biosafety Authority (Autorité Nationale de Biosécurité (ANB) in Senegal organized an Information sharing meeting on the gene drive technology as a complementary tool for malaria vector control, from 22-23 December 2021, in Somone, ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Stakeholder Views on Engagement, Trust, Performance, and Risk Considerations About Use of Gene Drive Technology in Agricultural Pest Management

C. L. Goldsmith, K. E. Kang, E. Heitman, Z. N. Adelman, L. W. Buchman, D. Kerns, X. Liu, R. F. Medina and A. Vedlitz,  Health Security,  2021.
Gene drive is an experimental technique that may make it possible to alter the genetic traits of whole populations of a species through the genetic modification of a relatively small number of individuals. This technology is sufficiently new that literature on the understanding ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Facilitating the Conversation: Gene Drive Classification

J. Overcash and A. Golnar,  Health Security,  2021.
Gene drives are an emerging technology with tremendous potential to impact public health, agriculture, and conservation. While gene drives can be described simply as selfish genetic elements (natural or engineered) that are inherited at non-Mendelian rates, upon closer ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Integrated Management of Malaria Vectors in Africa

R. Mbabazi, K. Maredia, B. B. El-Sayed, A. K. Babumba, M. Savadogo and O. Akinbo,  Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies,  2021.
Malaria disease is a major public health burden in Africa. The control of malaria vectors is a critical component for prevention, management, and eradication of malaria disease. This chapter presents information on the current status of malaria vector control in Africa with ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Laboratory Biosafety in Handling Genetically Modified Mosquitoes

J. Charles,  Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies,  2021.
One of the novel approaches in controlling vector-borne diseases is to release genetically modified mosquitoes in nature. Trial studies are done in different phases by the researches, both in the laboratory and in the fields. Before a GM mosquito is validated to be ready for ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Safety Assessment of Novel Genetic Technologies for Vector Control: National and International Perspectives

V. Ahuja,  Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies,  2021.
Novel genetic technologies provide an alternative approach for control of vectors particularly those carrying deadly pathogens. Genetic control technologies aim to either suppress target populations or modify the vector by introducing a heritable factor that reduces or blocks ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Measuring Public Attitudes to Releases of Transgenic Mosquitoes for Disease Control, with Special Reference to Dengue and Malaria

L. A. De Las Llagas and M. S. T. Gunigundo,  Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies,  2021.
Since the advent of DDT in public health and agriculture, science leaped forward with revolutionary technology such as gene drive or editing, thus making it possible to develop alternative approaches to address vector-borne diseases. However, their utilization and sustenance in ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Arthropods of Medical Importance: Need for Genetic and Other Innovative Vector Control Technologies, with Emphasis on Eco-biosocial and Environmental Considerations.

B. K. Tyagi,  Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies,  2021.
Among the world’s known vector groups, viz. arthropods, snails and rodents, the most important vectors originate from arthropods, the jointed legs. Arthropods are doubtlessly regarded as the most dominant creatures on the Earth due largely to their remarkable structural and ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies

B. K. Tyagi,  SpringerLink,  2021.
This book comprehensively covers the latest development in developing and deploying the genetically modified vectors, particularly Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes responsible for transmitting malaria parasites and dengue viruses, the most deadly and/or debilitating among all the ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Safe Application of Genetically Modified Mosquito (GMM) to Combat Dengue and Chikungunya Depends on Socioeconomic Status and Social Acceptance in the Developing Countries: A Comprehensive Analysis

M. N. Islam,  Genetically Modified and other Innovative Vector Control Technologies,  2021.
The emerging and re-emerging vector-borne diseases are a serious public health problem throughout the world. It has been observed that more than 100 countries and approximately half of the world’s population are at risk on vector-borne diseases (VBDs). The global burden of the ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Malaria vector control tools in emergency settings: What do experts think? Results from a DELPHI survey

C. Boete, S. Burza, E. Lasry, S. Moriana and W. Robertson,  Conflict and Health,  15:11. 2021.
Background The use and implementation of novel tools for malaria control such as long lasting impregnated bednets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) over the last decade has contributed to a substantial reduction in malaria burden globally. However numerous challenges ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

New Arthropod Containment Recommendations Provide Essential Guidance for Safety of Gene Drive Research

S. James and D. O’Brochta,  The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene,  tpmd211148. 2021.
Gene drive technologies have not yet been field tested, however, there are no data on the possible environmental or health effects of releasing gene drive–modified organisms. For this reason, there have been widespread calls for additional guidance on risk assessment and ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

New molecular genetic techniques: regulatory and societal considerations

Nielsen, K. M.,  AREA-WIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: Development and Field Application,  2021.
A rapidly expanding toolbox of techniques available for genome editing provides the basis for a new continuum in types of modifications that can be introduced into a genome and blur the bimodal GMO vs. non-GMO (genetically modified organism) divide. Site-directed nucleases (SDN) ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Genome editing and its applications for insect pest control: Curse or blessing?

Hacker, I. , and Schetelig, M. F,  AREA-WIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: Development and Field Application,  2021.
Gene and genome editing are described as cutting-edge research tools with the potential to tackle urgent global challenges in the management of agricultural pests and human disease vectors such as mosquitoes. The field is defined by the chances and challenges to interlink the ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Procedurally Robust Risk Assessment Framework for Novel Genetically Engineered Organisms and Gene Drives

Kuzma, J.,  Regulation and Governance,  15:1144-1165. 2021.
In this article, a new framework for improving risk assessments of novel genetically engineered organisms (GEOs) is developed and applied. The Procedurally Robust Risk Assessment Framework (PRRAF) provides a set of principles and criteria for assessing and enhancing risk ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

CRISPR-based gene drives for combatting malaria: Need for an early stage technology assessment.

Liebert, W.,  AREA-WIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: Development and Field Application,  2021.
The potential power of CRISPR-based gene drives makes it necessary to engage in science and technology assessment already in early stages of research and development. In order to argue for efforts to address this urgent need, gene drives to combat malaria-transmitting mosquitoes ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Barriers and facilitators of area-wide management including sterile insect technique application: The example of Queensland fruit fly

Mankad, A., Loechel, B., and Measham, P. F.,  AREA-WIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: Development and Field Application,  2021.
The area-wide management (AWM) of highly mobile insect pests such as tephritid fruit flies requires an integrated understanding of technical, social and institutional processes that drive a coordinated approach within a defined area. Furthermore, the success of an AWM programme ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Podcast: Malaria Gene Drive

S. Hartley, S. Neema and C. Opesen,  University of Exeter Business School,  2021.
Professor Sarah Hartley and her two colleagues in Uganda, Stella Neema and Chris Opesen discuss gene drive research for malaria control. Funded by British Academy and Wellcome trust, their work is to understand the social science challenges around the development of this kind of ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

A Household-Based Survey to Understand Factors Influencing Awareness, Attitudes and Knowledge towards Wolbachia-Aedes Technology

L. T. Soh, Z. Ong, K. Vasquez, I. Chen, X. Li, W. Niah, C. Panchapakesan, A. Sheldenkar, S. Sim, L. C. Ng and M. O. Lwin,  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health,  18. 2021.
In 2016, Singapore introduced the release of male Wolbachia-Aedes mosquitoes to complement vector control efforts and suppress Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in selected study sites. With ongoing expansion of Project Wolbachia-Singapore to cover larger areas, a household-based survey ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene drives in malaria control: what we need to know

R. Mudziwapasi, M. C. Changara, A. Ndudzo, T. Kaseke, F. Godobo, F. L. Mtemeli, R. Shoko, F. Songwe, S. Ndlovu and S. Sandra Mlambo,  Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment,  35:1623-1631. 2021.
Gene drives are being used to enhance a DNA sequence?s likelihood of passing between generations via sexual reproduction. Gene drives can be deployed to manipulate natural populations. They can be used to suppress populations by reducing the number of individuals in a population ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Containment Practices for Arthropods Modified with Engineered Transgenes Capable of Gene Drive Addendum 1 to the Arthropod Containment Guidelines, Version 3.2

American Committee of Medical Entomology,  Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases,  2021.
Responsible conduct of research is a cornerstone of rigorous scientific discovery. Institutional committees, independent advisory panels, and expert steering groups are among the frameworks in academia meant to provide guidance and assurances that research activities do not ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

European Parliament adopts text on biodiversity, calls for no releases of gene drive organisms

Third World Network,  TWN Biosafety Briefing,  2021.
Gene drive technologies, such as GM mosquitoes for the control of vector-borne diseases, pose serious and novel threats for the environment and nature, including irreversible changes to food chains and ecosystems, and losses of biodiversity, on which the world’s poorest depend ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Genome Editing Tools and Gene Drives: A Brief Overview (1st ed.).

R. Mudziwapasi, R. Chekera, C. Z. Ncube, I. Shoko, B. Ncube, T. Moyo, J. G. Chimbo, J. Dube, F. F. Mashiri, M. A. Mubani, D. Maruta, C. Chimbo, M. Masuku, R. Shoko, R. P. Nyamusamba and F. N. Jomane,  CRC Press,  2021.
Genome-editing methods are becoming routine tools for molecular and cell biologists. Such tools include ZFNs, CRISPR, megaTALs and TALENs. These tools are revolutionizing the creation of precisely manipulated genomes to modify the characteristics of organisms or cells. ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene drive and RNAi technologies: a bio-cultural review of next-generation tools for pest wasp management in New Zealand

S. Palmer, P. K. Dearden, O. R. Mercier, A. King-Hunt and P. J. Lester,  Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand,  1-18. 2021.
There is a global need for novel, next-generation technologies and techniques to manage pest species. We review work on potential step-changing technologies for large landscape (>1000 hectares) pest management of social Vespula wasps. We also review M?ori perspectives on these ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Small-scale release of non-gene drive mosquitoes in Burkina Faso: from engagement implementation to assessment, a learning journey

L. Pare Toe, N. Barry, A. D. Ky, S. Kekele, W. Meda, K. Bayala, M. Drabo, D. Thizy and A. Diabate,  Malaria Journal,  20:395. 2021.
This study provides a review of engagement activities relevant to field trials on non-gene drive genetically-modified mosquitoes as well as an assessment framework-using both qualitative and quantitative studies as well as an audit procedure. The latter was implemented to ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Weltnaturschutzunion sucht Position

Anonymous,  Informationsdienst Gentechnik,  2021.
Die Weltnaturschutzunion IUCN will in den nächsten drei Jahren eine breite interne Diskussion führen, ob Gentechnik und Gene Drives im Naturschutz eingesetzt werden sollen. Mit diesem Beschluss ist der Versuch gentechnikfreundlicher Organisationen, mit Artenschutz-Argumenten ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Calling the latest gene technologies ‘natural’ is a semantic distraction — they must still be regulated

J. A. Heinemann, D. J. Paull, S. Walker and B. Kurenbach,  The Conversation,  2021.
Legislators around the world are being asked to reconsider how to regulate the latest developments in gene technology, genome editing and gene silencing. Both the European Court of Justice and the New Zealand High Court have ruled that genome editing techniques should remain ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

To exterminate, or not to: Scientists debate tweaking wild genomes

French Press Agency,  Daily Sabah,  2021.
veryone remembers Jeff Goldblum's famous speech in 1993 classic Jurassic Park: “Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether they could, they didn't stop to think if they should.” Well, these scientists are debating whether one should. In the movie, reconstructing and ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

The viral era

B. Giese,  EMBO reports,  22:e53229. 2021.
New biotechnologies such as gene drives and engineered viruses herald a viral era that would give humans exceptional power over any organism at the level of the genotype. In synthetic biology, orthogonality—in the sense of lack of interference—between different systems or ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

The international governance of gene drive organisms

F. Rabitz,  Environmental Politics,  2021.
Gene Drive Organisms (GDOs) are a proposed biotechnological intervention that might generate significant benefits for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity while also raising critical biosafety issues. Despite their inevitable transboundary effects, their ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Knowing and Controlling: Engineering Ideals and Gene Drive for Invasive Species Control in Aotearoa New Zealand

C. H. Ross,  Nature Remade: Engineering Life, Envisioning Worlds,  2021.
On the islands of Aotearoa, also called New Zealand, invasive species have been a prominent and persistent concern for local ecosystems. Traditional methods of biological control, though, can be difficult to implement and often have harmful side- effects for the environment and ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

2021 WHO guidelines on genetically modified mosquitoes

M. Makoni,  The Lancet Microbe,  2:e353. 2021.
On May 19, 2021, WHO updated its guidelines for research and development on genetically modified mosquitoes, which define the standards for decision-making about how and when testing should proceed and describe best practices to ensure that research done in a public health ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Oxitec and MosquitoMate in the United States: lessons for the future of gene drive mosquito control

C. E. Schairer, J. Najera, A. A. James, O. S. Akbari and C. S. Bloss,  Pathogens and Global Health,  2021.
ABSTRACTIn response to growing concerns regarding mosquito-borne diseases, scientists are developing novel systems of vector control. Early examples include Oxitec?s OX513A genetically-engineered mosquito and MosquitoMate?s Wolbachia-infected mosquito, and systems using ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Risk management recommendations for environmental releases of gene drive modified insects

Y. Devos, J. D. Mumford, M. B. Bonsall, D. C. M. Glandorf and H. D. Quemada,  Biotechnology Advances,  2021.
The ability to engineer gene drives (genetic elements that bias their own inheritance) has sparked enthusiasm and concerns. Engineered gene drives could potentially be used to address long-standing challenges in the control of insect disease vectors, agricultural pests and ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Drives – Engineering the Wild

L. Sharratt,  Sentinel,  2021.
So far, genetically engineered organisms have been mostly limited to agricultural use, with partial success. Around the world, a few major crops (mostly corn, soy, and cotton) are genetically engineered, predominantly for herbicide tolerance and insect resistance. However, the ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Earth system interventions as technologies of the Anthropocene

J. L. Reynolds,  Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions,  40:132-146. 2021.
Earth system interventions (ESIs)—intentional large-scale interventions in Earth systems—are not entirely new. However, in response to threats to sustainability, particularly from climate change and biodiversity loss, some scientists and others are researching, developing, ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Africa Turning to Gene Drive Technology for Malaria Elimination

M. Hearty,  Science Africa,  2021.
With Africa accounting for nine out of ten malaria cases globally, the continent is turning to gene drive technology to control the disease. This is according to a decision made by African leaders at the 29th Summit of Heads of States and Governments of the African Union held in ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

West African countries working together to develop framework to regulate genetically engineered mosquitos: Target Malaria

Anonymous,  Global News,  2021.
Abdoulaye Diabaté, principal investigator for Target Malaria, says West African countries like Burkina Faso, Mali and Benin are working with the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) to develop a pan-West African framework to regulate gene drive mosquitos.
Keywords: , , , , ,

Potential use of gene drive modified insects against disease vectors, agricultural pests and invasive species poses new challenges for risk assessment

Y. Devos, J. D. Mumford, M. B. Bonsall, A. M. Camargo, L. G. Firbank, D. C. M. Glandorf, F. Nogué, K. Paraskevopoulos and E. A. Wimmer,  Critical Reviews in Biotechnology,  2021.
Potential future application of engineered gene drives (GDs), which bias their own inheritance and can spread genetic modifications in wild target populations, has sparked both enthusiasm and concern. Engineered GDs in insects could potentially be used to address long-standing ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

‘Nigeria has capacity for safe application of modern biotechnology’

M. Adewale,  The Guardian,  2021.
Director-general of the National Biosafety Management Agency (NBMA), Dr. Rufus Ebegba, has declared that Nigeria has the capacity to deploy safe biotechnology products for agricultural development and environmental safety. Ebegba, who gave the assurance at the opening of a ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

European Parliament calls for ban on gene drive technology

Save Our Seeds,  Save Our Seeds,  2021.
The European Parliament yesterday confirmedi it‘s precautionary stance towards the use of a new genetic engineering technology called gene drive. In its report on the EU’s Biodiversity Strategy for 2030, adopted at the European Parliament’s plenary on 08.06.2021, ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Living With the Limits of Our New Clerisy’s Knowledge

R. Fernandez,  PJ Media,  2021.
We are living in a strange time when reason has fallen short of human expectations and there is, once again, pressure to place our trust in faith. Leighton Woodhouse hit the nail on the head when he argued that we have appointed a New Clerisy to rule over us, not because they are ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

African Experts Welcome WHO Guidance on Ethics, Standards, and Governance of Genetically Modified Mosquito Research

E. Nakkazi,  Health Policy Watch,  2021.
Researchers engaged in mosquito gene drive technologies are optimistic that new World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on best research practices will ensure that their work is safe and ethical. Such guidance also helps research results advance from laboratories to be used in ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

What is wrong in extinguishing a species? Charting the Ethical Challenges of using Gene-Drive Technologies to eradicate A. gambiae vector populations

M. Annoni and T. Pievani,  Biolaw Journal-Rivista Di Biodiritto,  2021.
This article analyses three ethical arguments against the use of gene-drive technologies to control for, and possibly extinguish, a particular species of vector mosquitoes (Anopheles gambiae) causing the malaria infection. We conclude that none of these arguments is truly ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

WHO releases new guidance for deployment of genetically modified mosquitoes

E. Henderson,  News Medical Life Sciences,  2021.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has released new guidance for the deployment of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes to combat vector-borne diseases like malaria and dengue. GM mosquitoes may carry a gene that kills female progeny and the technology can be used against the ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Q&A: WHO updates guidance on testing genetically modified mosquitoes

E. N. Dreisbach,  Healio,  2021.
Researchers have been exploring the use of genetically modified mosquitos as a potential control method for vector-borne diseases. Just last month, Oxitec began releasing its genetically modified (GM), self-limiting male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the Florida Keys in the hope of ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Why the EU should back research into gene drive – even if Europe never uses it

R. Müller,  The Brussels Times,  2021.
As the EU’s Biodiversity Strategy reaches the European Parliament, it has reopened a worrying debate about research into gene drive technology, a tool which could pave the way for biasing the inheritance of desired genetic traits through targeted species. Advances in this kind ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Genetically modified mosquitoes; WHO issues new guidance for research

DTE Staff,  Down To Earth,  2021.
Genetically-modified mosquitoes or GMMs have been used across the world to control mosquitoes. GMMs have been able to bring down the population of the Aedes aegypti by 90 per cent in countries like Brazil, the Cayman Islands, Panama and Malaysia. But there have never been any ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

WHO issues new guidance for research on genetically modified mosquitoes to fight malaria and other vector-borne diseases

WHO,  reliefweb,  2021.
New guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) sets essential standards to inform future research and development on genetically modified mosquitoes, particularly in addressing issues relating to ethics, safety, affordability and effectiveness. Malaria and other ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Guidance framework for testing of genetically modified mosquitoes, second edition

WHO,  WHO-TDR,  2021.
For more than 2 decades, scientists have been working to harness the promise of molecular biology to develop genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) for use as public health tools to prevent the transmission of vector-borne diseases. Responding to a need for additional standards ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

The legal regulation of gene drive technologies

C. Elves,  Univeristy of Oxford,  2021.
Gene drive technologies purport to provide a panacea and yet in doing so present unprecedented risks that threaten to change, potentially irreversibly, the way in which we live in the world. Gene drive technologies raise questions about what ends societies ought to seek for their ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Driving genetic destruction

Anonymous,  Alliance for Natural Health,  2021.
Genetically-engineered (GE) mosquitoes have been released in a number of countries, including the US. We’ve known for some time that these experiments have not gone to plan, but a new paper provides a better understanding of how they’ve went awry, and provides a harrowing ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Selection of Sites for Field Trials of Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes with Gene Drive

G. C. Lanzaro, M. Campos, M. Crepeau, A. Cornel, A. Estrada, H. Gripkey, Z. Haddad, A. Kormos, S. Palomares and W. Sharpee,  bioRxiv,  2021.04.28.441877. 2021.
Novel malaria control strategies using genetically engineered mosquitoes (GEMs) are on the horizon. Population modification is one approach wherein mosquitoes are engineered with genes rendering them refractory to the malaria parasite coupled with a low-threshold, Cas9-based gene ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Fighting mosquitoes with mosquitoes

W. Feng,  The Daily Targum,  2021.
When you think about the animal that has killed the greatest number of humans in the world, you generally tend to think of large predators. Is it perhaps the great white shark or maybe the cute but deadly hippopotamus? While these animals are certainly deadly, the number of ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

CRISPR-Cas and Its Wide-Ranging Applications: From Human Genome Editing to Environmental Implications, Technical Limitations, Hazards and Bioethical Issues

R. Piergentili, A. Del Rio, F. Signore, F. U. Ronchi, E. Marinelli and S. Zaami,  Cells,  10:24. 2021.
The CRISPR-Cas system is a powerful tool for in vivo editing the genome of most organisms, including man. During the years this technique has been applied in several fields, such as agriculture for crop upgrade and breeding including the creation of allergy-free foods, for ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Oxitec Receives Landmark Biosafety Approval for New Fall Armyworm Control Solution

Oxitec,  Oxitec,  2021.
Approval of Oxitec’s Friendly™ fall armyworm technology by the Brazilian government’s regulatory agency CTNBio confirms that it is safe for people, animals and the environment. Oxitec’s Friendly™ fall armyworm is a new, safe, and sustainable solution to one of the ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Experimenting with co-development: a qualitative study of gene drive research for malaria control in Mali

S. Hartley, K. Ledingham, R. Owen, S. Leonelli, S. Diarra and S. Diop,  Social Science and Medicine,  2021.
Our findings suggest co-development is opening up previously expert-dominated spaces as researchers attempt to take responsibility for the societal implications of their work. However, its main function is as a project management tool to enable and instrumentally support ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Ethics of Genome Editing

European Group on Ethics,  European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies,  2021.
This Opinion addresses the profound ethical questions raised and revived by them. It analyses various domains of application, from human health to animal experimentation, from livestock breeding to crop variety and to gene drives. With its wide view across areas, it identifies ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

The ethical scientist in a time of uncertainty

L. Zoloth,  Cell,  184:1430-1439. 2021.
Using the example of gene drives for malaria control to explore the problem of deep uncertainty in biomedical research, I argue that profound uncertainty is an essential feature. Applying the language and presumptions of the discipline of philosophical ethics, I describe three ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Differentiated impacts of human interventions on nature: Scaling the conversation on regulation of gene technologies

J. A. Heinemann, D. J. Paull, S. Walker and B. Kurenbach,  Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene,  9. 2021.
Biotechnology describes a range of human activities in medicine, agriculture, and environmental management. One biotechnology in particular, gene technology, continues to evolve both in capacity and potential to benefit and harm society. The purpose of this article is to offer a ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Experts’ moral views on gene drive technologies: a qualitative interview study

N. de Graeff, K. R. Jongsma and A. L. Bredenoord,  BMC Medical Ethics,  22:25. 2021.
Gene drive technologies (GDTs) promote the rapid spread of a particular genetic element within a population of non-human organisms. Potential applications of GDTs include the control of insect vectors, invasive species and agricultural pests. Whether, and if so, under what ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

The science & ethics of gene drive technology from a conservation & development perspective

Renew Europe,  Renew Europe,  2021.
This hearing intends to examine gene-drive technology and its possible impacts, including unintended ones and reveal the complexity of an unknown technology with inherent uncertainties. Scientists from different backgrounds in the field of gene-drive research will present most ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Demographic and psychographic drivers of public acceptance of novel invasive pest control technologies

F. Eppink, P. J. Walsh and E. MacDonald,  Ecology and Society,  26. 2021.
Invasive mammals are a primary threat to New Zealand's endemic species. In remote areas, aerial delivery of poison is the preferred method of pest management, although it faces some public backlash. Novel pest control technologies are currently being investigated as alternatives ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

GeneConvene Webinar Series on: Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment of Gene Drives

Hector Quemada and David O'Brochta,  ,  2021.
Unlike non-gene drive organisms, which can be limited in time and space and therefore provide data in small scale tests that can be relevant to large scale releases, the potential for large-scale spread from a limited release, even in well-isolated trials, means that reliance on ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Emergent challenges for CRISPR: biosafety, biosecurity, patenting, and regulatory issues

Braddick, D. , and Ramarohetra, R. F.,  Genome Engineering Via Crispr-Cas9 System,  2021.
The recent advancements of CRISPR-Cas technologies have transformed this simple and efficient gene editing technique into an extraordinarily powerful tool. The most anticipated applications could create novel therapeutics against mankind's most serious afflictions and help ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Scientifically framed gene drive communication perceived as credible but riskier

E. A. MacDonald, E. D. Edwards, J. Balanovic and F. Medvecky,  People and Nature,  2021.
Framing is a communication technique in which certain beliefs or values are emphasized that resonate with the target audience. Framing may increase how much people objectively think about new information and update their opinions; framing may mitigate emo
Keywords: , , , , ,

A Code of Ethics for Gene Drive Research

G. J. Annas, C. L. Beisel, K. Clement, A. Crisanti, S. Francis, M. Galardini, R. Galizi, J. Grünewald, G. Immobile, A. S. Khalil, R. Müller, V. Pattanayak, K. Petri, L. Paul, L. Pinello, A. Simoni, C. Taxiarchi and J. K. Joung,  The CRISPR Journal,  2021.
A code of ethics can be a useful tool for all parties involved in the development and regulation of gene drives and can be used to help ensure that a balanced analysis of risks, benefits, and values is taken into consideration for the interest of society and humanity. We have ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Public attitudes towards synthetic biology

CSIRO,  Synthetic Biology Future Science Platform,  2021.
A national survey has been conducted by CSIRO’s Synthetic Biology Future Science Platform as an important first step in measuring public attitudes towards synthetic biology. The survey draws on the views of more than 8,000 Australians, and researchers are examining the data to ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

How to engage communities on a large scale? Lessons from World Mosquito Program in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [version 2; peer review: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations]

G. B. Costa, R. Smithyman, S. L. O'Neill and L. A. Moreira,  Gates Open Research,  2021.
Here we discuss and analyse the framework for community engagement implemented by the WMP in Brazil, during the large-scale deployment of the method in the municipalities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Our experience indicates that the community engagement work for ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Les Européens très critiques vis-à-vis du forçage génétique

L. Duboua-Lorsch,  EURACTIV,  2021.
Cette technique, qui vise à éradiquer ou modifier certaines espèces dites nuisibles, sera au cœur des négociations cette année, alors que se profile la COP15 sur la biodiversité. maginez un monde débarrassé d’insectes porteurs de maladies, de parasites agricoles, ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

GENE DRIVE ACCEPTANCE SURVEY

YouGov,  Pollinis,  2021.
This representative survey was conducted by the international market research institute YouGov and polled 8.826 citizens from 8 EU countries in December 2020. It was commissioned by WeMove Europe, Save Our Seeds (Germany), Skiftet (Sweden), France Nature Environnement (FNE) ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Playing God and tampering with nature: popular labels for real concerns in synthetic biology

L. Carter, A. Mankad, E. V. Hobman and N. B. Porter,  Transgenic Research,  2021.
We present the findings from a large Australian study (N = 4593) which suggests ‘playing God’ objections and their variants can be multilayered and, at times, accompanied by meaningful information about risk perceptions. We use qualitative analysis of ope
Keywords: , , , , ,

RNAi-based products: A sustainable alternative to hazardous pesticides

Ghent University,  Phys Org,  2021.
RNAi-based biocontrol is a great alternative to hazardous pesticides and can contribute towards reversing the alarming decline in farmland birds and beneficial insects (especially pollinating ones). RNAi is a well-known natural biological process in most
Keywords: , , , , ,

The Promises and Realities of Integration in Synthetic Biology: A View From Social Science

L. Carter and A. Mankad,  Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology,  8. 2021.
We take stock of thepromises and realities of science integration by sharing our experiences of embarking onthis very challenge in Australia. We conclude by offering suggestions for bringing aboutthe enabling conditions for improved integration across the natural and social ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Exploring Gene Drive Technologies in Agriculture, Biodiversity and Human Disease

The GBIRd Partnership and The GeneConvene Global Collaborative,  Gene Drive Research Forum,  2021.
The GBIRd Partnership and The GeneConvene Global Collaborative recently collaborated through The Gene Drive Research Forum, to create and produce an engaging conversation between Drs. Fred Gould and Charles Godfray about gene drive technologies – the potential benefits and ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Demystifying the Risk Assessment Process for Laboratory-Based Experiments Utilizing Invasive Genetic Elements: It Is More Than Gene Drive

Z. N. Adelman,  Applied Biosafety,  2021.
Advances in recombinant DNA approaches have resulted in the development of transgene architectures that severely bias their own inheritance, a process commonly referred to as ?gene drive.? The rapid pace of development, combined with the complexity of many gene drive approaches, ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Next-generation tools to control biting midge populations and reduce pathogen transmission

P. Shults, L. W. Cohnstaedt, Z. N. Adelman and C. Brelsfoard,  Parasites and Vectors,  14:31. 2021.
Biting midges of the genus Culicoides transmit disease-causing agents resulting in a significant economic impact on livestock industries in many parts of the world. Localized control efforts, such as removal of larval habitat or pesticide application, can be logistically ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Conservation pest control with new technologies: public perceptions

E. A. MacDonald, M. B. Neff, E. Edwards, F. Medvecky and J. Balanovic,  Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand,  2021.
We conducted eleven focus groups in New Zealand to explore three questions about novel technologies (gene drive and two others for comparison of pest control tools): (1) what are the risks/benefits? (2) how do they compare to current methods? and (3) who should be represented on ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Application of the Relationship-Based Model to Engagement for Field Trials of Genetically Engineered Malaria Vectors

A. Kormos, G. C. Lanzaro, E. Bier, G. Dimopoulos, J. M. Marshall, J. Pinto, A. Aguiar dos Santos, A. Bacar, H. Sousa Pontes Sacramento Rompão and A. A. James,  The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene,  2020.
Although guidelines and recommendations for engagement for gene drives have recently been described, we argue here that communities and stakeholders should lead the planning, development, and implementation phases of engagement. The RBM provides a new approach to the development ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

New GE unintentionally leaves traces in cells

C. Then,  Testbiotech,  2020.
A new scientific publication shows that CRISPR/Cas gene scissor applications in animals unintentionally leave traces. The findings are not related to unintended changes in the DNA, which have often been described, but to gene regulation, i.e. epigenetics. The effects are ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Core commitments for field trials of gene drive organisms

K. C. Long, L. Alphey, G. J. Annas, C. S. Bloss, K. J. Campbell, J. Champer, C.-H. Chen, A. Choudhary, G. M. Church, J. P. Collins, K. L. Cooper, J. A. Delborne, O. R. Edwards, C. I. Emerson, K. Esvelt, S. W. Evans, R. M. Friedman, V. M. Gantz, F. Gould,,  Science,  370:1417-1419. 2020.
While field trials of gene drive organisms (GDOs) ultimately will depend on public policy decisions, those engaged in GDO work can play critical roles in support of these decisions by generating evidence and developing evaluation strategies in fair and effective partnerships with ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Scientists paved the way for field trials of gene-driven organisms

K. Winslet,  FLORIDA News Times,  2020.
The recent rise of gene drive research, accelerated by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology, has brought about a wave of transformation throughout science.Developed with selected traits that have been genetically engineered to spread throughout the population, Gene Drive ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Technical Support to Burkina Faso on Gene Drive Stage 2 Dossier Review

AUDA-NEPAD,  AUDA-NEPAD,  2020.
AUDA-NEPAD in partnership with the National Biosafety Agency (ANB) in Burkina Faso organised a training workshop to support to the National Biosafety Committee (NBC) on stage 2 dossier review, on December 3 – 5, 2020, in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. In addition to the NBC ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Drive-Modified Organisms: Developing Practical Risk Assessment Guidance

Y. Devos, M. B. Bonsall, L. G. Firbank, J. Mumford, F. Nogué and E. A. Wimmer,  Trends in Biotechnology,  2020.
Risk assessors, risk managers, developers, potential applicants, and other stakeholders at many levels discuss the need for new or further risk assessment guidance for deliberate environmental releases of gene drive-modified organisms. However, preparing useful and practical ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Scientists Set a Path for Field Trials of Gene Drive Organisms

M. Aguilera,  UC San Diego News Center,  2020.
The modern rise of gene drive research, accelerated by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology, has led to transformational waves rippling across science. Gene drive organisms (GDOs), developed with select traits that are genetically engineered to spread through a population, have ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Interdisciplinary development of a standardized introduction to gene drives for lay audiences

C. E. Schairer, C. Triplett, A. Buchman, O. S. Akbari and C. S. Bloss,  BMC Medical Research Methodology,  20:15. 2020.
While there is wide consensus that the public should be consulted about emerging technology early in development, it is difficult to elicit public opinion about innovations unfamiliar to lay audiences. We sought public input on a program of research on genetic engineering to ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Burkina Faso Stakeholders consultations on Gene Drive Technology for integrated vector management towards malaria elimination

AUDA-NEPAD,  AUDA-NEPAD,  2020.
Under its flagship Integrated Vector Management (IVM) Programme, African Union Development Agency (AUDA-NEPAD) in partnership with the National biosafety agency (ANB) of Burkina Faso organized an information sharing workshop on the applications of "Gene Drive" technology and ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Evaluating Gene Drive Approaches for Public Benefit

M. R. Santos,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
Gene drive approaches—those which bias inheritance of a genetic element in a population of sexually reproducing organisms—have the potential to provide important public benefits. The spread of selected genetic elements in wild populations of organisms may help address certain ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Engineered Gene Drives and their Value in the Control of Vector-Borne Diseases, Weeds, Pests, and Invasive Species

K. Hefferon and R. Herring,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
Genetic engineering has created potential for moving medical and agricultural research and application frontiers forward in unprecedented ways. Despite its accepted use as a powerful tool in medical research, genetic modification and genome editing technologies remain ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Engineered Gene Drives: Ecological, Environmental, and Societal Concerns

J. Kuzma,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
This chapter overviews the types, purposes, and potential impacts of gene drive organisms (GDOs) and discusses challenges with foreseeing and assessing these impacts prior to their environmental release. It concludes with a few examples of risk analysis methods and governance ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Genetically Engineered Fish: Potential Impacts on Aquaculture, Biodiversity, and the Environment

R. A. Dunham and B. Su,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
Studies on transgenic fish for the aquaculture industry have focused on improving growth rates, enhancing disease resistance, altering body composition, acting as biological factories for medical proteins, and even altering temperature tolerance and coloration. The future impact ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Invasive Species Control and Resolution of Wildlife Damage Conflicts: A Framework for Chemical and Genetically Based Management Methods

L. Clark, J. Eisemann, J. Godwin, K. E. Horak, K. Oh, J. O’Hare, A. Piaggio, K. Pepin and E. Ruell,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
Vertebrate wildlife damage management relates to developing and employing methods to mitigate against damage caused by wildlife in the areas of food production, property damage, and animal or human health and safety. Of the many management tools available
Keywords: , , , , ,

GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes

Chaurasia, Anurag , Hawksworth, David L., Pessoa de Miranda, Manoela.,  GMOs: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Processes,  2020.
This book covers a broad spectrum of topics related to GMOs and allied new gene-based technologies, biodiversity, and ecosystem processes, bringing together the contributions of researchers and regulators from around the world. The aim is to offer a clear view of the benefits and ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Transformation and slippage in co-production ambitions for global technology development: The case of gene drive

K. Ledingham and S. Hartley,  Environmental Science & Policy,  116:78-85. 2020.
Co-production is an increasingly popular framework for knowledge generation, evaluation and decision making. Despite its potential to open up decisions and practices to the input of others, co-production regularly falls short of its transformative ambitions. Through documentary ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

FNIH Panel on Gene Drive Regulation Emphasizes Need for Local Community Engagement

C. Rizk,  GenomeWeb,  2020.
Genetically modified organisms are another topic of deep debate, with some activists agitating for and getting governments to implement deep restrictions on modified crops. More recently, GMO crops have started to regain public favor, particularly in countries where boosting the ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Engineering biological diversity: the international governance of synthetic biology, gene drives, and de-extinction for conservation

J. L. Reynolds,  Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability,  49:1-6. 2020.
In the face of insufficient progress in conserving and restoring biodiversity, the in situ use of advanced genetic modification, gene drives, and other biotechnologies for conservation purposes are being considered, researched, and developed. This paper introduces the methods, ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Further guidance required for assessment of gene drive technology, says EFSA

N. Foote,  Euractiv,  2020.
After being mandated by the European Commission, EFSA’s experts on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) published the scientific opinion related to engineered gene drives on Thursday (12 November), specifically focusing on gene drive modified disease-transmitting insects, ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Further guidance required for assessment of gene drive technology, says EFSA

Euractiv,  The World News Monitor,  2020.
Existing guidelines are adequate for evaluating risks associated with gene-drive modified insects, but further guidance is needed for some areas, most notably for environmental risk assessments. The evaluation was requested to explore the issue ahead of the consideration of any ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Mutagenic chain reaction cannot be sufficiently controlled

Christoph Then,  Testbiotech,  2020.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has published the results of its public consultation on the risks of so-called gene drive organisms. Testbiotech accuses the authority of disguising the real dimension of the risks. Gene drives are designed to spread artificial genetic ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Adequacy and sufficiency evaluation of existing EFSA guidelines for the molecular characterisation, environmental risk assessment and post-market environmental monitoring of genetically modified insects containing engineered gene drives

E. Panel o. G. M. Organisms, H. Naegeli, J.-L. Bresson, T. Dalmay, I. C. Dewhurst, M. M. Epstein, P. Guerche, J. Hejatko, F. J. Moreno, E. Mullins, F. Nogué, N. Rostoks, J. J. Sánchez Serrano, G. Savoini, E. Veromann, F. Veronesi, M. B. Bonsall, J. Mumfor,  EFSA Journal,  18:e06297. 2020.
As a proactive measure, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has been requested by the European Commission to review whether its previously published guidelines for the risk assessment of genetically modified animals (EFSA, 2012 and 2013), including insects (GMIs), are ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Outcome of a public consultation on the draft adequacy and sufficiency evaluation of existing EFSA guidelines for the molecular characterisation, environmental risk assessment and post-market environmental monitoring of genetically modified insects containing engineered gene drives

European Food Safety Authority, Y. Devos, M. B. Bonsall, F. Nogué, K. Paraskevopoulos, E. A. Wimmer and L. G. Firbank,  EFSA Supporting Publications,  17:1939E. 2020.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) carried out an online public consultation to receive input from interested parties/persons on the draftscientific opinion on the adequacy and sufficiencyevaluation of existing guidelines for the molecular characterisation (MC), ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

EFSA advises on risk assessment of engineered gene drives

EFSA,  European Food and Safety Authority,  2020.
EFSA’s existing guidelines for the risk assessment of genetically modified animals are adequate for evaluating risks associated with gene drive modified insects. However, further guidance is needed for some areas, such as molecular characterisation, environmental risk ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene drives, species, and compassion for individuals in conservation biology

Y. Rohwer,  Ethics, Policy and Environment,  2020.
In this paper I argue that these compassionate conservationists have a moral obligation to support the investigation and development of genetic modification technologies because of their potential to minimize suffering and eliminate killing in conservation. Furthermore, I will ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Novel and Exceptional Technology and Research Advisory Committee – NExTRAC -NIH

NIH Office of Science Policy,  National Institutes of Health (NIH),  2020.
NExTRAC provides advice to the Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on matters related to the conduct and oversight of research involving emerging technologies in biomedical science. NExTRAC also makes recommendations on research involving the use of, and ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

When Extinction is Warranted: Invasive Species, Suppression-Drives, and the Worst-Case Scenario

A. C. Thresher,  Ethics, Policy and Environment,  2020.
The focus of this paper is on one such risk ? the danger of a suppression-drive escaping containment and wiping out the target species globally. Here, I argue that in most cases this risk is significant enough to warrant holding off on the technology. In some cases, however, we ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Brave New Planet: Reshaping Nature Through Gene Drives

E. Lander,  Brave New Planet,  2020.
A new technology, called gene drives, has the power to spread any genetic instructions you wish across an entire animal or plant species in the wild. It might let us restore ecosystems ravaged by invasive species, or help species adapt to climate change. And, it might save ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

The ethical way to alter organisms

K. Esvelt,  Boston Globe,  2020.
As my colleagues and I first described in 2014, we can use CRISPR genome editing to duplicate the most powerful form of “gene drive,” a ubiquitous natural phenomenon that happens when a genetic change is inherited more frequently than usual. Encode the CRISPR machinery next ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Drives: A Controversial Tool to Fight Malaria

H. Albert,  LABIOTECH.eu,  2020.
The possibility of creating gene drives was introduced into the scientific community in 2003 by Austin Burt, a professor at Imperial College London. Burt was studying ‘selfish genes’ that can copy themselves into a specific target DNA sequence. He suggested that these genes, ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Advances in genetic engineering test democracy’s capacity for good decision-making

N. Kofler and R. Taitingfong,  Boston Globe,  2020.
New advances in genetic engineering and their application for environmental conservation and public health are further testing our democracy’s capacity for good decision-making. With minimal public input, the Environmental Protection Agency recently approved the release of ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Research and Innovation for biodiversity: what role for gene drive research?

EP Intergroup CCBSD,  European Bureau of Conservation and Development,  2020.
This webinar will provide an overview of how gene drive works and the problems it seeks to solve, introduce the most advanced research projects on gene drive in the sector of public health and conservation and present the work that international and European bodies such as WHO, ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Inauguration and first meeting of WA-IVM Technical Working Groups

AUDA-NEPAD,  AUDA-NEPAD News,  2020.
African Union Development Agency – NEPAD (AUDA-NEPAD) in collaboration with the West Africa Health Organization (WAHO), the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Environment in Cote d’Ivoire, organized the inaugural meeting of WA-IVM Technical Working Groups (TWGs) from 24 ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Engineered Gene Drives: Policy and Regulatory Considerations Webinar Series by The GeneConvene Global Collaborative October-December 2020

Hector Quemada and David O'Brochta,  GeneConvene Global Collaborative,  2020.
In this series of webinars the regulatory and policy challenges of moving new innovative genetic biocontrol products such as gene drive technologies to the field will be featured. Each seminar will be ~60 minutes in length followed by questions and answers.
Keywords: , , , , ,

WHO Refers to GM Mosquitoes as Beneficial Technology

ISAAA,  Crop Biotech Update,  2020.
The World Health Organization (WHO) released its official statement to clarify its stance on the evaluation and use of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes and its use to control vector-borne diseases (VBD). WHO says it supports the investigation of all potentially beneficial ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Position of ARRIGE Scientific Committee on Gene Drive

ARRIGE Scientific Committee on Gene Drive,  ARRIGE Newsletter,  2020.
We are facing a change of paradigm that must lead us to be responsible for altered inheritance and the hybridization between artefacts, considered as natural or artificial, at the very moment when this division itself is blurred by the engineering capacity to act on mutations, ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Drives – Mit gentechnischer Ausrottung Menschen und Natur schützen?

Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung,  Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung,  2020.
Am Beispiel von Gene Drives zur Malariabekämpfung soll in diesem Online-Seminar aufgezeigt werden, wie die Technologie funktioniert, wer sie entwickelt, finanziert und ihre Anwendung vorantreibt, welche Risiken sie birgt, wie in betroffenen Ländern darüber diskutiert und warum ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

WHO Releases a Position Statement on Genetically Modified Mosquitoes for the Control of Vector-Borne Diseases

E. R. Fletcher,  Health Policy Watch,  2020.
WHO announced their support for the continued investigation into genetically modified mosquitoes as an alternative to existing interventions to reduce or prevent vector-borne diseases.
Keywords: , , , , ,

Ethics and vector-borne diseases

WHO,  WHO Guidance,  2020.
The guidance was developed by an international group of experts in vector control, infectious disease ethics, maternal and child health, ecology and climate change, research and vaccine development, and public health communication. It examines a broad range of ethical ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Engineered Gene Drives: Regulatory and Policy Considerations Webinar Series by The GeneConvene Global Collaborative October-December 2020

Hector Quemada and David O'Brochta,  GeneConvene Global Collaborative,  2020.
This is series of webinars the regulatory and policy challenges of moving new innovative genetic biocontrol products such as gene drive technologies to the field will be featured.
Keywords: , , , , ,

ESA Position Statement on the Importance of Continued Innovation in Gene Drive Technology

Entomological Society of America,  Annals of the Entomological Society of America,  2020.
The risks and benefits of GDTs should be considered with the risks and benefits of continuing current pest control interventions, which may be comparatively less effective or pose exposure risks to human health and the environment.
Keywords: , , , , ,

GeneConvene Global Collaborative Webinar Series Oct-Dec 2020

Hector Quemada and David O'Brochta,  GeneConvene Global Collaborative,  2020.
This is series of webinars the regulatory and policy challenges of moving new innovative genetic biocontrol products such as gene drive technologies to the field will be featured.
Keywords: , , , , ,

Evaluation of genetically modified mosquitoes for the control of vector-borne diseases

Global Malaria Programme,  WHO - Position Statement,  2020.
In the spirit of fostering innovation, WHO takes the position that all potentially beneficial new technologies, including GMMs, should be investigated to determine whether they could be useful in the continued fight against diseases of public health concern. Such research should ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Do Africans Want Genetically Modified Mosquitoes?

U. Effiong,  The Pursuit,  2020.
The recent publication by fellow Nigerian scientists—Patricia Okorie and colleagues—originally drew my attention to the issue of GMMs.
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Drive: Modern Miracle or Environmental Disaster

K. Brooks,  Journal of Law, Technology and Policy,  2020.
This Note will show how gene drive technology fits imperfectly into the old regulatory framework through case studies. The Analysis will also describe how the different regulatory agencies handle similar gene drive-like organisms inconsistently, and the inherent danger of this ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene drives: Navigating perils of engineered eradication, with Christoph Then.

IEAM Podcast,  Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management,  2020.
Imagine a world without natural enemies like parasites or deadly pathogens. Where crops grow unfettered by rodent and insect pests. Advances in genetic engineering now hold the possibility to alter genomes at the population level, but is it too good to be true? A critical review ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Global citizen deliberation on genome editing

J. S. Dryzek, D. Nicol, S. Niemeyer, S. Pemberton, N. Curato, A. Bächtiger, P. Batterham, B. Bedsted, S. Burall, M. Burgess, G. Burgio, Y. Castelfranchi, H. Chneiweiss, G. Church, M. Crossley, J. de Vries, M. Farooque, M. Hammond, B. He, R. Mendonça, J.,  Science,  369:1435. 2020.
Here we show how, as the global governance vacuum is filled, deliberation by a global citizens' assembly should play a role, for legitimate and effective governance.
Keywords: , , , , ,

Risks of releasing gene drives mosquitoes – a possible future scenario

Testbiotech,  Testbiotech,  2020.
Genetically engineering the genome of an organism with gene drive means that it will be replicated in every following generation. This allows the altered gene to spread rapidly throughout natural populations, which may be decimated or even eradicated. The video contains both ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Scientists Evaluate Environmental Impacts of Gene Drive Organisms

Staff,  American Laboratory,  2020.
Researcher Marion Dolezel, from the Environment Agency Austria, and a team of international scientists published in the open-access journal BioRisk, discuss the potential risks and impacts on the environment.
Keywords: , , , , ,

Responsible innovation in biotechnology: Stakeholder attitudes and implications for research policy

P. Roberts, J. Herkert and J. Kuzma,  Elementa,  2020.
Using a mixed methods approach, we analyzed the attitudes of different biotechnology stakeholders, particularly those working in areas related to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture and the environment, towards the principles and practices of RI. Homogenous focus ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Governing New Biotechnologies for Biodiversity Conservation: Gene Drives, International Law, and Emerging Politics

J. L. Reynolds,  Global Environmental Politics,  20:28-48. 2020.
This article describes and analyzes the international law and politics of gene drives’ research, development, and possible use, with an emphasis on their potential biodiversity applications.
Keywords: , , , , ,

Viewpoint: Is there a scientific basis to ban gene drive technology that can rid us of virus-carrying rodents and mosquitoes?

K. Vavitas,  Genetic Literacy Project,  2020.
Gene drives may be invaluable tools to control the spread of parasites, invasive species, and disease carriers. But the technology has faced strong opposition from activist groups and some mainstream scientists based on environmental and food safety. Are these concerns valid?
Keywords: , , , , ,

Bednets or Biotechnology: To Rescue Current Persons or Research for the Future?

D. E. Callies,  Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences,  14. 2020.
After an exploration of the duty to rescue and cost-effectiveness analysis, I suggest we look towards the literature on intergenerational justice for a justifiable answer to the question of how we ought to allocate our malaria resources.
Keywords: , , , , ,

Incorporating Characteristics of Gene Drive Engineered Ae. aegypti as Methods to Reduce Dengue and Zika Virus into the Bayesian Network – Relative Risk Model, Using Ponce, Puerto Rico as a Case Study

S. R. Eikenbary,  WWU Graduate School Collection,  2020.
The Bayesian network relative risk model can perform the risk assessment of gene drive engineered Ae. aegypti for vector control and as part of an adaptive management strategy to reduce dengue and Zika transmission. This study illustrates how the BN-RRM can integrate gene drive ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Global Governing Bodies: A Pathway for Gene Drive Governance for Vector Mosquito Control

A. Kelsey, D. Stillinger, T. B. Pham, J. Murphy, S. Firth and R. Carballar-Lejarazú,  American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene,  2020.
We examined the current institutions and governing bodies among various continents that could have an impact on gene drive governance or the potential to adapt to its future use. Possible governance strategies also are proposed that seek to bridge gaps and promote an ethically ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Exploring gene drive’s role in fight against malaria

J. Conrow,  Genetic Literacy Project,  2020.
J. Conrow (2020) Genetic Literacy Project. An international initiative has formed to ensure that gene drive technology gets a chance to prove its mettle in the quest to control malaria.
Keywords: , , , , ,

Biotechnologies in pest wasp control: taking the sting out of pest management for Māori businesses?

S. Palmer and O. R. Mercier,  New Genetics and Society,  2020.
A Maori-centered mixed-method study gauged the perceptions of eight Maori businesses about the potential use of five specific new biotechnological controls in pest management.
Keywords: , , , , ,

Après les OGM, la nouvelle technique du forçage génétique inquiète écologistes et scientifiques

H. Leussier,  Reporterre,  2020.
Les organismes issus du forçage génétique peuvent transmettre, sans autre intervention humaine, des gènes modifiés à tous leurs descendants. Cette technique permettrait d’éradiquer des espèces nuisibles, comme certains moustiques vecteurs de la malaria. Mais des ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Lettre ouverte a Monsieur le Premier Ministre demandant l’interdiction de la production, de l’utilisation et de la dissémination de tout OGM issu du forçage génétique

A. Bossu, N. Laarman, D. Houdebine, H. Le Meur, F. Jacquemart and F. Warlop,  Open Letter,  2020.
A. Bossu, N. Laarman, D. Houdebine, H. Le Meur, F. Jacquemart and F. Warlop (2020). Open Letter. An open letter from French civil society organizations urging the French Parliament to support a resolution at the upcoming Convention on Biodiversity that would call for a ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Providing a policy framework for responsible gene drive research: an analysis of the existing governance landscape and priority areas for further research

D. Thizy, I. Coche and J. de Vries,  Wellcome Open Research,  2020.
D. Thizy, I. Coche and J. de Vries (2020). Wellcome Open Research. doi: 10.12688/wellcomeopenres.16023.1 In this manuscript, we review the existing regulatory landscape around gene drive research and map areas of convergence and divergence, as well as gaps in relation to ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Genome Editing in Food and Farming: Risks and unexpected consequences

J. Cotter and D. Perls,  Canadian Biotechnology Action Network,  2020.
J. Cotter and D. Perls (2020). Canadian Biotechnology Action Network. In this report, we provide an overview of genome editing techniques being explored in agriculture, and the range of potential unexpected effects that can arise from them. The report draws on recent scientific ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Genome Editing 2020: Ethics and Human Rights in Germline Editing in Humans and Gene Drives in Mosquitoes

G. J. Annas,  American Journal of Law and Medicine,  46:143-165. 2020.
G. J. Annas (2020). American Journal of Law and Medicine. doi: 10.1177/0098858820933492. I begin with a discussion of so far disastrously unsuccessful attempts to regulate germline editing in humans, including a summary of the first application of germline genome editing in ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

CSOs raise alarm over genetically-engineered mosquitoes in Nigeria

A. Oboh,  Vanguard,  2020.
No fewer than 75 civil society organisations, CSOs, across the world have raised the alarm over moves to release genetically-modified mosquitoes in Nigeria, noting that the country was about to be used as a guinea pig for the project, which will endanger humans, biodiversity and ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Groups warn against release of genetically-engineered mosquitoes in Nigeria

C. Onyesi,  Daily Post,  2020.
C. Onyesi (2020). Daily Post. Over 75 Civil Society Organizations from Nigeria, Africa and the world have condemned moves to open the way for the release of genetically modified mosquitoes in Nigeria.
Keywords: , , , , ,

Malaria: Over 75 CSOs raise alarm over plans to release nautically engineered mosquitoes

News Agency of Nigeria,  WorldStage,  2020.
Mre than 75 Environmental Civil Society Organisations from Nigeria, Africa and other countries have condemned moves to open way for release of genetically modified mosquitoes to control malaria infection. The News Agency of Nigeria (NAN), reports that at a virtual meeting of ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

NGOs call for moratorium on controversial ‘gene drive organisms’

N. Foote,  EURACTIV,  2020.
https://borgenproject.org/3-innovative-technologies-stopping-malaria/
Keywords: , , , , ,

Nigerian government restates commitment to safety in applying modern biotechnology

Agencies,  today ng,  2020.
The National Biosafety Management Agency (NBMA) has reiterated its commitment to ensure the safety of the public while applying modern biotechnology to boost food security and economic development of citizens. Dr Rufus Ebegba, Director-General, NBMA, gave the assurance at a ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Soon we’ll be able to engineer the wild, can the policies keep up with the science?

M. Montague and A. Kobokovich,  The Hill,  2020.
Humans have been able to genetically alter the world around them for thousands of years. With the domestication of dogs at least 14,000 years ago, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been a constant feature of human society; only recently have we gained the ability to ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Drive Webinars -ENSSER, CSS, VDW and SC

European Network of Scientists for Social and Environmental Responsibility,  ,  2020.
This series of 5 Webinars by some of the authors of the interdisciplinary Gene Drive Report (2019) and were organised by four organisations of independent scientists: the European Network of Scientists for Social and Environmental Responsibility (ENSSER), Critical Scientists ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Species Extinction & the Case for a Global Moratorium on Gene Drives

M. Imken,  ARC,  2020.
One million species are currently threatened with extinction, and humanity faces the challenge of stopping the sixth mass extinction in the history of our planet. Yet a new technology called Gene Drive enables human beings to reprogram wild species by genetic engineering and to ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Drive: Can this be the Future of Agricultural Pest Management?

P. Mondal, U. Mohapatra and M. Ganguly,  International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences,  9. 2020.
A world free of hunger may be possible when the agricultural production exceeds the global demand for the food. In the era of increasing population, the need for increased food production can be attainable by managing the destructive pests of the agricultural and horticultural ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene drives: benefits, risks, and possible applications

A. Deplazes-Zemp, U. Grossniklaus, F. Lefort, P. Müller, J. Romeis, A. Rüegsegger, N. Schoenenberger and E. Spehn,  Swiss Academies Factsheets,  15. 2020.
Gene drives are genetic elements that skew the pattern of inheritance of a given characteristic in sexually reproducing organisms. They can be used to spread a characteristic that can alter or even reduce the numbers of individuals in wild populations of a certain species. As ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Genetically modified mosquitoes could be released in Florida and Texas beginning this summer – silver bullet or jumping the gun?

B. Allan, C. Stone, H. Tuten, J. Kuzma and N. Kofler,  The Conversation,  2020.
On May 1, 2020, the company Oxitec received an experimental use permit from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to release millions of GM mosquitoes (labeled by Oxitec as OX5034) every week over the next two years in Florida and Texas. Females of this mosquito species, Aedes ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Position Paper on Integrated Vector Management: Strengthening AU Members’ Regulatory Capacities for Responsible Research Towards Elimination of Malaria in Africa

African Union Development Agency - NEPAD,  AUDA-NEPAD,  2020.
Africa continues to bear a heavy brunt of the malaria which is a disease transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito. Thousands of lives, mostly of young children, are lost every year; which undermines efforts deployed at various levels for increased life expectancy and improved ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Drives: Pursuing opportunities, minimizing risk

K. L. Warmbrod, A. Kobokovich, R. West, G. Ray, M. Trotochaud and M. Montague,  Center for Health Security,  2020.
This study analyzed the current state of gene drive technologies, the ways in which they might be deployed in the field, and the state of regulatory policy governing their development.
Keywords: , , , , ,

The EU not ready for the release of Gene drive organisms into the environment.

Pensoft Publishers,  ScienceDaily,  2020.
In their study, published in the open-access journal BioRisk, an international group of scientists led by Marion Dolezel from the Environment Agency Austria, discuss the potential risks and impacts on the environment.
Keywords: , , , , ,

The development of complex and controversial innovations. Genetically modified mosquitoes for malaria eradication

V. Cisnetto and J. Barlow,  Research Policy,  49:103917. 2020.
e use a longitudinal process approach and qualitative system dynamics modelling to study the development of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes for malaria eradication in an African country.
Keywords: , , , , ,

EPA Grants First Permit to Test Genetically Modified Mosquitoes

Adam Allington,  Bloomberg Law,  2020.
British biotech company Oxitec Ltd was granted an experimental use permit to release a genetically engineered type of the mosquito species Aedes aegypti, which is a known vector of Zika virus and viruses that cause yellow fever and dengue fever, the Environmental Protection ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

EPA Approves Experimental Use Permit to Test Innovative Biopesticide Tool to Better Protect Public Health

EPA,  EPA,  2020.
Today, after extensive evaluation of the best available science and public input, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has granted an experimental use permit (EUP) to Oxitec Ltd. to field test the use of genetically engineered Aedes aegypti mosquitoes as a way to reduce ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

EFSA discusses risk assessment of gene drives

C. Then,  Testbiotech,  2020.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) carried out a public consultation on guidance for the risk assessment of so-called gene drives at the request of the EU Commission. At the same time, a new Testbiotech scientific paper was accepted after peer review. The paper shows that ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Alternative Techniques and Options for Risk Reduction of Gene Drives

Bernd Giese, Arnim von Gleich and Johannes L. Frieß,  Gene Drives at Tipping Points,  2020.
In this chapter, we analyse and compare different types of gene drives as well as promising alternative approaches that may provide a reduced risk.
Keywords: , , , , ,

Vulnerability Analysis of Ecological Systems

Carina R. Lalyer, Arnim von gleich, Bernd Giese,  Gene Drives at Tipping Points,  2020.
Vulnerability analysis can be seen as the counterpart to technology characterization. Technology characterisation scrutinises the intervening technology. Vulnerability analyses potentially affected systems. That may be socio-ecological, socio-technical, socio-economic or other ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Drives at Tipping Points

Amin von Gleich and Winfried Schroder,  Gene Drives at Tipping Points,  2020.
This open access book reports on a pilot project aiming at collecting information on the socio-ecological risks that could arise in the event of an uncontrolled spread of genetically engineered organisms into the environment. The researchers will, for instance, be taking a closer ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Report of the ad hoc technical expert group on risk assessment

Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Risk Assessment,  Convention on Biological Diversity,  2020.
The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol further decided to extend the Online Forum on Risk Assessment and Risk Management to assist the AHTEG and invited submissions of information relevant to the work of the online forum and ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

GENE DRIVE ORGANISMS: Implications for the environment and nature conservation

M. Dolezel, S. Simon, M. Otto, M. Engelhard and W. Zughart,  Umweltbundesamt,  2020.
Recent advances in biotechnology aim at the genetic modification of wild living populations. Some potential applications consider self-propagating genetic elements to generate gene drive organisms (GDOs), also for nature conservation. Due to the potential of GDOs to spread ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Spatio-temporal controllability and environmental risk assessment of genetically engineered gene drive organisms from the perspective of EU GMO Regulation

C. Then, K. Kawall and N. Valenzuela,  Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management,  2020.
Gene drive organisms are a recent development created by using methods of genetic engineering; they inherit genetic constructs that are passed on to future generations with a higher probability than with Mendelian inheritance. There are some specific challenges inherent to the ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Stakeholder workshop “Problem formulation for the environmental risk assessment of gene drive modified insects” (15 May 2019, Brussels)

European Food Safety, A., Devos, Y., Gallani, B. & Firbank, L. G,  A. European Food Safety, Y. Devos, B. Gallani and L. G. Firbank,  17:1819E. 2020.
Recent advances in molecular and synthetic biology are enabling the engineering of gene drives that spread genes of interest through interbreeding populations at a frequency greater than the rate expected by simple Mendelian inheritance. At present, insects represent the most ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Toward the definition of efficacy and safety criteria for advancing gene drive-modified mosquitoes to field testing

S. L. James, J. M. Marshall, G. K. Christophides, F. O. Okumu and T. Nolan,  Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases,  2020.
Mosquitoes containing gene drive systems are being developed as complementary tools to prevent transmission of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. As with any new tool, decision makers and other stakeholders will need to balance risks (safety) and benefits (efficacy) when ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Risk assessment challenges of synthetic gene drive organisms

E. Sirinathsinghji,  TWN Biosafety Briefing,  2020.
The development of gene drive organisms (GDOs) is highly controversial, as illustrated by the intense academic, political and societal debates over their potential deployment for a variety of applications from public health to conservation, agriculture and dual-use technologies. ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Risk assessment challenges of synthetic gene drive organisms

E. Sirinathsinghji,  TWN Biosafety Briefing,  2020.

Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Drives: New and Improved

R. M. Friedman, J. M. Marshall and O. S. Akbari,  Issues in Science and Technology,  36:1-7. 2020.
Our goal here is to describe the various options under development in nontechnical terms for a policy-making audience, review how far along each is, and examine the broader context of how this new suite of technologies compares with other available alternatives. Early engagement ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Public Opinion Towards Gene Drive as a Pest Control Approach for Biodiversity Conservation and the Association of Underlying Worldviews

E. A. MacDonald, J. Balanovic, E. D. Edwards, W. Abrahamse, B. Frame, A. Greenaway, R. Kannemeyer, N. Kirk, F. Medvecky, T. L. Milfont, J. C. Russell and D. M. Tompkins,  Environmental Communication,  14:904-918. 2020.
Synthetic gene drive approaches are nascent technologies with potential applicability for pest control for conservation purposes. Responsible science mandates that society be engaged in a dialogue over new technology, particularly where there exist global ramifications as with ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Drive Film

Save Our Seeds,  ,  2020.
This is a video based on the findings in GENE DRIVES: A report on their science, applications, social aspects, ethics and regulations which you can find here.  There was a Symposium on May 24, 2019 that covers the topics in the report and the presentations at that symposium can ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Metaphor, Trust and Support for Non-native Species Control

P. A. Kohl, S. J. Collins and M. Eichholz,  Environmental Communication,  14:672-685. 2020.
This experimental study used a representative sample of U.S. residents (N = 1,042) to test whether the use of the term "invasive" increases support for non-native species control efforts. The term invasive had a small influence on support for two out of three non-native species ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

An Initial Framework for the Environmental Risk Assessment of Synthetic Biology-Derived Organisms with a Focus on Gene Drives.

W. G. Landis, E. A. Brown and S. Eikenbary,  Synthetic Biology 2020: Frontiers in Risk Analysis and Governance. Risk, Systems and Decisions.,  2019.
We apply the structure of source-stressor-habitat-effect-impact pathway derived from the relative risk model (Landis and Wiegers 2005) and as was demonstrated to be applicable in the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) 2016 report Gene Drives on the ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Peri-Urban Community Attitudes towards Codling Moth Trapping and Suppression Using the Sterile Insect Technique in New Zealand

G. Paterson, G. L. W. Perry, J. T. S. Walker and D. M. Suckling,  Insects,  10. 2019.
New, more socially-acceptable technologies are being developed to suppress horticultural pests, because suppression is technically difficult with current technologies, especially in urban areas. One technique involves the release of sterile insects to prevent offspring in the ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Drives: Dynamics and Regulatory Matters-A Report from the Workshop “Evaluation of Spatial and Temporal Control of Gene Drives,” April 4-5, 2019, Vienna

B. Giese, J. L. Friess, N. H. Barton, P. W. Messer, F. Debarre, M. F. Schetelig, N. Windbichler, H. Meimberg and C. Boete,  Bioessays,  41:3. 2019.
Gene Drives are regarded as future tools with a high potential for population control. Due to their inherent ability to overcome the rules of Mendelian inheritance, gene drives (GD) may spread genes rapidly through populations of sexually reproducing organisms. A release of ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Guidance for IBCs: Regulatory requirements for contained research with GMOs containing engineered gene drives

Office of the Gene Technology Regulator,  Australian Government, Department of Health,  2019.
This document provides guidance for Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBCs) and researchers on the regulatory requirements for organisms containing engineered ‘gene drives’, including the physical containment (PC) level of facilities for notifiable low risk dealings ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Autonomy of Nations and Indigenous Peoples and the Environmental Release of Genetically Engineered Animals with Gene Drives

Z. Meghani,  Global Policy,  10:554-568. 2019.
This article contends that the environmental release of genetically engineered (GE) animals with heritable traits that are patented will present a challenge to the efforts of nations and indigenous peoples to engage in self-determination. The environmental release of such animals ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Synthetic Biology: Research Needs for Assessing Environmental Impacts

C. M. Warner, S. R. Carter, R. F. Lance, F. H. Crocker, H. N. Meeks, B. L. Adams, M. L. Magnuson, T. Rycroft, K. Pokrzywinski and E. J. Perkins,  Synthetic Biology 2020: Frontiers in Risk Analysis and Governance,  2019.
Synthetic biology and its applications have the potential to greatly improve economic development, public health, environmental stewardship, technological advancement, and many other areas. In May 2017, sixty individuals gathered in Lexington, Massachusetts for a workshop ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Drives in Africa: Civil Society Speaks Out

African Centre for Biodiversity,  African Centre for Biodiversity,  2019.
On Monday 1st July 2019, Target Malaria announced the release of genetically modified (GM) sterile male mosquitoes in Bana, a village in Burkina Faso – the first GM insect to be released in Africa. This is Phase I – by Phase III, Target Malaria aims to release gene drive ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Synthetic Biology and the United Nations

H.-E. Lai, C. Canavan, L. Cameron, S. Moore, M. Danchenko, T. Kuiken, Z. Sekeyová and P. S. Freemont,  Trends in Biotechnology,  37:1146-1151. 2019.
Synthetic biology is a rapidly emerging interdisciplinary field of science and engineering that aims to redesign living systems through reprogramming genetic information. The field has catalysed global debate among policymakers and publics. Here we describe how synthetic biology ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Biological control of pests and a social model of animal welfare

A. Mankad, U. Kennedy and L. Carter,  Journal of Environmental Management,  247:313-322. 2019.
We consider the role of perceived humaneness or, more accurately, animal welfare as it relates to managing invasive species from a scientific and social perspective. In order to highlight and articulate particular nuances and standards across different pest control contexts, we ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Drive Symposium-Critical Science Switzerland

Critical Scientists Switzerland; European Network of Scientists for Social and Environmental Responsibility; Vereinigung Deutscher Wissenschaftler,  ,  2019.

Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Drives: A report on their science, applications, social aspects, ethics and regulations

H. Dressel,  Critical Scientists Switzerland; European Network of Scientists for Social and Environmental Responsibility; Vereinigung Deutscher Wissenschaftler,  2019.
Engineered Gene Drives are a new form of genetic modification that provides the tools for permanently modifying or potentially even eradicating species or populations in the wild. Unlike the previous genetically modified organisms (GMOs), gene drive organisms (GDOs) are not meant ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

RISCOS BIOTECNOLÓGICOS AMBIENTAIS E PARTICIPAÇÃO SOCIAL: POR UMA GESTÃO DEMOCRÁTICA DA BIOTECNOLOGIA GENE DRIVE NA ATUAÇÃO DA CTNBIO

L. C. Rodrigues,  Revista Jurídica (FURB),  22. 2019.
This research aims to study the way in which the environmental risks of Gene Drive biotechnology challenge forms of effective social participation, inserted in the management of biotechnological risks, whose responsibility lies with the organs ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

The EU regulatory framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

Bruetschy, C,  Transgenic Research,  28:169-174. 2019.
The European Union (EU) legislation on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) aims to ensure a high level of protection for human, animal and environmental health and a well-functioning EU internal market. The framework regulates the release of GMOs into the environment and their ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Informed consent and community engagement in open field research: lessons for gene drive science

Singh, JA,  BMC Medical Ethics,  20:54. 2019.
The development of the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system has generated new possibilities for the use of gene drive constructs to reduce or suppress mosquito populations to levels that do not support disease transmission. Despite this prospect, social resistance to genetically ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Genetic frontiers for conservation: An assessment of synthetic biology and biodiversity conservation

K. H. Redford, T. Brooks, M., B. W. Nicholas and J. S. A. Macfarlane,  International Union for Conservation of Nature,  2019.
This assessment is the beginning of a process that will lead to the development of an IUCN policy to guide the Union’s Director General, Commissions, and Members. The draft policy will be discussed in many fora before it is brought to vote at the World Conservation Congress in ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Let’s say we can force the mosquito into extinction — should we do it?

Porterfield, A,  Genetic Literacy Project,  2018.
Not many people like mosquitoes. So why not eliminate them?; Newer techniques like CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing may make this possible. A new study by researchers at Imperial College London showed how CRISPR/Cas9 can generate a mutant gene that renders female mosquitos infertile, ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Research on gene drive technology can benefit conservation and public health.

Outreach Network for Gene Drive Research,  Outreach Network for Gene Drive Research,  2018.
As a global community, we are facing life-threatening challenges that undermine our future, from catastrophic loss of biodiversity to acute public health threats.
Keywords: , , , , ,

A Call to Protect Food Systems from Genetic Extinction Technology

Global Food and Agriculture Movement,  etc Group,  2018.
Gene drives threaten natural systems. If released experimentally into the environment they may spread engineered genes uncontrollably through wild and domesticated species. This could alter ecological systems and food webs, harm biodiversity and eradicate beneficial organisms ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

The ethical implications of population suppression and the irreversibility of gene drives

J. Kim,  International Journal of Life Sciences Research,  2018.
This paper aims to examine the current situation by presenting important ethical arguments that include Chardin’s principle of irreversibility and Weiss’ beliefs on intergenerational equity, ideals upheld by the United Nations
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene Drives – Wundermittel? Biowaffe?

Swiss Academy of Sciences SCNAT,  Swiss Academy of Sciences,  2018.
Gene drives are genetic elements that skew the pattern of inheritance of a given characteristic in sexually reproduc- ing organisms. They can be used to spread a characteristic that can alter or even reduce the numbers of individuals in wild populations of a certain species.
Keywords: , , , , ,

Summary

Committee on Gene Drive Research in Non-Human Organisms: Recommendations for Responsible,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S243-S254. 2018.
Scientists have studied gene drives for more than 50 years. The development of a powerful genome editing tool in 2012, CRISPR/Cas9,1 led to recent breakthroughs in gene drive research that built on that half century’s worth of knowledge, and stimulated new discussion of the ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Anomaly handling and the politics of gene drives

S. W. Evans and M. J. Palmer,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S223-S242. 2018.
Decisions about the development and use of gene drives are framing broader debates about the need for fundamental changes to biotechnology regulatory systems. We summarize this debate and describe how gene drives are being constructed as potential anomalies within the regulatory ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Regulating animals with gene drive systems: lessons from the regulatory assessment of a genetically engineered mosquito

Z. Meghani and J. Kuzma,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S203-S222. 2018.
In this paper, we consider the question of whether the United States Food and Drug Administration is prepared to effectively regulate insects and other animals with gene drives. Given the profound impact that gene drives could have on species and ecosystems, their use is a ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Harnessing gene drive

J. Min, A. L. Smidler, D. Najjar and K. M. Esvelt,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5. 2018.
Determining whether, when, and how to develop gene drive interventions responsibly will be a defining challenge of our time. Here we describe capabilities, safeguards, applications, and opportunities relevant to gene drive technologies.
Keywords: , , , , ,

A roadmap for gene drives: using institutional analysis and development to frame research needs and governance in a systems context

J. Kuzma, F. Gould, Z. Brown, J. Collins, J. Delborne, E. Frow, K. Esvelt, D. Guston, C. Leitschuh, K. Oye and S. Stauffer,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S13-S39. 2018.
This paper reports on a workshop held in February 2016 to explore the complex intersection of political, economic, ethical, and ecological risk issues associated with gene drives. Workshop participants were encouraged to use systems thinking and mapping to describe the ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Mapping research and governance needs for gene drives

J. Delborne, J. Kuzma, F. Gould, E. Frow, C. Leitschuh and J. Sudweeks,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S4-S12. 2018.
This special issue represents both deep and broad thinking about gene drives. The papers were first drafted nearly two years ago, and since then have been reviewed and revised to flesh out key arguments and take account of ongoing developments in the field. This field has moved ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Gene drives and the expanding horizon of governance

E. Fisher,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S1-S3. 2018.
Like other areas of emerging science and technology that trigger prolonged public debate over their transformative prospects, gene drives simultaneously generate prospects for new knowledge, hoped-for benefits, and formidable concerns. Their ability to bias inheritance of and in ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Means and ends of effective global risk assessments for genetic pest management

Turner, GB, Camilla; Roda, Lucia,  BMC Proceedings,  12:13. 2018.
The development and use of genetic technologies is regulated by countries according to their national laws and governance structures. Legal frameworks require comprehensive technical evidence to be submitted by an applicant on the biology of the organism, its safety to human, ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Development of community of practice to support quantitative risk assessment for synthetic biology products: contaminant bioremediation and invasive carp control as cases

Trump, BF, C.; Rycroft, T.; Wood, M. D.; Bandolin, N.; Cains, M.; Cary, T.; Crocker, F.; Friedenberg, N. A.; Gurian, P.; Hamilton, K.; Hoover, J.J.; Meyer, C.; Pokrzywinski, K.; Ritterson, R.; Schulte, P.; Warner, C. ; Perkins, E.; Linkov, I.,  Environmental Systems and Decisions,  38:517-527. 2018.
Synthetic biology has the potential for a broad array of applications. However, realization of this potential is challenged by the paucity of relevant data for conventional risk assessment protocols, a limitation due to to the relative nascence of the field, as well as the poorly ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

THE NATIONAL BIOSAFETY TECHNICAL COMMISSION (CTNBio) NORMATIVE RESOLUTION No. 16, OF JANUARY 15, 2018

CTNBio,  National Biosafety Technical Commission of Brasil,  2018.
Sets forth the technical requirements for submitting an inquiry to the CTNBio concerning Precision Breeding Innovation Techniques. THE NATIONAL BIOSAFETY TECHNICAL COMMISSION (CTNBio), using its legal and regulatory powers and in observance of sections XV and XVI of article 14 of ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Making policies about emerging technologies

Kaebnick, G. E. and M. K. Gusmano,  Hastings Center Report,  48:S2-S11. 2018.
Can we make wise policy decisions about still-emerging technologies?decisions that are grounded in facts yet anticipate unknowns and promote the public's preferences and values? There is a widespread feeling that we should try. There also seems to be widespread agreement that the ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Open, Local, and Obligated

Yale University,  ,  2017.
Kevin Esvelt, PhD, assistant professor at the MIT Media Lab and leader of the Sculpting Evolution Group talks about the need for new scientific structures based on transparency and open. This lecture was given at the 2017 Editing Nature Summit.
Keywords: , , , , ,

Informed consent in field trials of gene-drive mosquitoes

P. A. Kolopack and J. V. Lavery,  Gates Open Research,  2017.
We argue that informed consent from individual research participants in gene drive trials may be required: (1) when blood and other forms of clinical data are collected from them, as will likely be the case in some studies involving epidemiological endpoints, such as the ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Report of the ad hoc technical expert group on synthetic biology

Ad Hoc Technical Working Group,  Convention on Biological Diversity,  2017.
In decision XIII/17, the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity commended the work of the online forum and the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Synthetic Biology (AHTEG) and welcomed the conclusions and recommendations of the report of the AHTEG as a ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Conservation demands safe gene drive

K. M. Esvelt and N. J. Gemmell,  PLOS Biology,  15:e2003850. 2017.
Here, we explore the risk of accidental spread posed by self-propagating gene drive technologies, highlight new gene drive designs that might achieve better outcomes, and explain why we need open and international discussions concerning a technology that could have global ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

The potential for the use of gene drives for pest control in New Zealand: a perspective

P. K. Dearden, N. J. Gemmell, O. R. Mercier, P. J. Lester, M. J. Scott, R. D. Newcomb, T. R. Buckley, J. M. E. Jacobs, S. G. Goldson and D. R. Penman,  Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand,  48:225-244. 2017.
Here we describe the current state of gene drive technologies and present a series of examples to examine the potential benefits and problems arising from gene drive approaches for pest control in New Zealand.
Keywords: , , , , ,

Using CRISPR-based gene drive for agriculture pest control

V. Courtier-Orgogozo, B. Morizot and C. Boëte,  EMBO Reports,  18:1481. 2017.
The authors respond to comments to their publication 10.15252/embr.201744205
Keywords: , , , , ,

ASSEMBLY OF THE UNION Twenty-Ninth Ordinary Session: DECISIONS, DECLARATIONS AND RESOLUTION

African Union,  African Union,  2017.
Assembly/AU/Dec.649(XXIX): COMMITS to sustain the gains made in the fight against Malaria and monitor antimalarial drug resistance and insecticide resistance; COMMITS ALSO to invest in the development and regulation of the gene-drive technology as well as other new innovations ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

The use of gene editing to create gene drives for pest control in New Zealand

Royal Society Te Apārangi Gene Editing Panel,  Royal Society of New Zealand,  2017.
to explore the implications of gene editing technology for New Zealand, the Royal Society Te Apārangi has convened a multidisciplinary panel of some of New Zealand’s leading experts to consider the social, cultural, legal and economic implications of revolutionary ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Agricultural pest control with CRISPR-based gene drive: time for public debate

V. Courtier-Orgogozo, B. Morizot and C. Boëte,  EMBO Reports,  18:878-880. 2017.
Gene drive technology to control disease vectors or pests has great potential for addressing humanitarian and public health problems. Its application for pest control in agriculture, however, raises important environmental, social and ethical issues.
Keywords: , , , , ,

SCIENTIFIC OPINION: In response to the referral of 12 October 2015 concerning use of genetically modified mosquitoes for vector control

High Council for Biotechnology,  High Council for Biotechnology (France),  2017.
The Scientific Committee’s opinion describes emerging vector control techniques using GM mosquitoes, the current state of research into and development of these techniques and the outcomes of initial experiments worldwide. To date, only one technique has been developed to an ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Genome editing: scientific opportunities, public interests and policy options in the European Union

EASAC,  European Academies Science Advisory Council,  2017.
In many of the areas in which EASAC, the European Academies’ Science Advisory Council, works, where a large and solid body of knowledge is needed to inform the action of our societies, it is important to recognise that there is an intimate mix of science and values involved in ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Adaptive risk management of gene drive experiments: Biosafety, biosecurity, and ethics

Lunshof, JEB, A.,  Applied Biosafety,  22:97-103. 2017.
Emerging technologies in the life sciences call for new models of biosafety risk management. We examine the question of how to; address new developments in the life sciences and biosciences in a bottom-up manner—that is, from the concrete level of; biosafety practice with a ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

The End of the GMO? Genome Editing, Gene Drives and New Frontiers of Plant Technology

K. L. Hefferon and R. J. Herring,  Review of Agrarian Studies,  7. 2017.
mprovements to agriculture will constitute one of the world’s greatest challenges in the coming century. Political and social controversies, as well as complications of plant breeding, intellectual property, and regulation, have compromised the promised impact of genetically ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Guidance on risk assessment of living modified organisms and monitoring in the context of risk assessment

Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group (AHTEG) on Risk Assessment and Risk Management,,  Convention on Biological Diversity,  2016.
This document was developed by the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group (AHTEG) on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, with input from the Open-ended Online Expert Forum, in accordance with terms of reference set out by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Biodiversity, GMOs, Gene Drives and the Militarised Mind

Shiva, V,  Inter Press Service,  2016.
A recent report from the National Academy of Science of The United States, titled Gene Drives on the Horizon : Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values”, warns:; “One possible goal of release of a gene-drive modified organism is to ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Science and Technology Committee Genetically Modified Insects

UK Parliament,  UK Parliament,  2015.
The UK is a world leader in the development of this technology. The European Union’s regulatory process, however, is likely to hold back progress. There is a moral duty to test the potential of the technology. We therefore support further research and call for action to test ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Can systematic reviews inform GMO risk assessment and risk management?

Kohl, CF, G.; Sweet, J.; Spok, A.; Haddaway, N.R.; Wilhelm, R.; Unger, S.; Schiemann, J.,  Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology,  3:113. 2015.
Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize, and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Biosafety for human health and the environment in the context of the potential use of genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs)

WHO/TDR,  WHO/TDR Training Manual,  2015.
This Training manual: Biosafety for human health and the environment in the context of the potential use of genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) is based on biosafety training courses on GMMs undertaken in Africa, Asia and Latin America from 2008–2011. The courses were ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Guidance framework for testing of genetically modified mosquitoes

WHO,  WHO-TDR,  2014.
As the research progresses, a need has been expressed both within the scientific community and by the public for additional standards and guidance. WHO-TDR and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) co-sponsored a technical consultation meeting in 2009 to ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Perceptions and recommendations by scientists for a potential release of genetically modified mosquitoes in Nigeria

P. N. Okorie, J. M. Marshall, O. M. Akpa and O. G. Ademowo,  Malaria Journal,  13:154. 2014.
The use of genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) for the control of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases has been proposed in malaria-endemic countries, such as Nigeria, which has the largest burden in Africa. Scientists are major stakeholders whose opinions and perceptions ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Regulatory experience and challenges for the release of GM insects

Beech, C,  Journal Fur Verbraucherschutz Und Lebensmittelsicherheit-Journal of Consumer Protection and Food Safety,  9:S71-S76. 2014.
Genetically modified (GM) insects are a potentially valuable new tool for the biological control of insect pests of humans, animals and plants. Considerable progress has been made recently in transfer of GM insects from the laboratory to release and evaluation in the environment. ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified animals

European Food Safety Authority,  European Food Safety Authority,  2013.
This document describes the six sequential steps for the ERA of GM animals, as indicated in Directive 2001/18/EC: (1) problem formulation including hazard and exposure identification; (2) hazard characterisation; (3) exposure characterisation; (4) risk characterisation; (5) risk ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified animals.

EFSA GMO Panel (EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms),  EFSA Journal,  11:3200. 2013.
This document provides guidance for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of living genetically modified (GM) animals, namely fish, insects and mammals and birds, to be placed on the European Union (EU) market in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 or Directive ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Ethical issues in field trials of genetically modified disease-resistant mosquitoes

D. B. Resnik,  Developing World Bioethics,  14:37-46. 2012.
Mosquito-borne diseases take a tremendous toll on human populations, especially in developing nations. In the last decade, scientists have developed mosquitoes that have been genetically modified to prevent transmission of mosquito-borne diseases, and field trials have been ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

The Nagoya – Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity,  Convention on Biodiversity,  2011:1-16. 2011.
Adopted as a supplementary agreement to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, the Supplementary Protocol aims to contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity by providing international rules and procedures in the field of liability and redress relating to ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Progress and prospects for the use of genetically modified mosquitoes to inhibit disease transmission

A. A. James, J. D. Mumford, S. L. James and Y. T. Touré,  WHO/TDR,  2010.
The use of genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) for disease control has social, economic and ethical implications, so it is important that the World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners provide guidance to countries on these issues. In collaboration with the Foundation ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Problem formulation in the environmental risk assessment for genetically modified plants

Wolt, JDK, Paul; Raybould, Alan; Fitzpatrick, Julie W.; Burachik, Moisés; Gray, Alan; Olin, Stephen S.; Schiemann, Joachim; Sears, Mark; Wu, Felicia,  Transgenic Research,  19:425-436. 2010.
Problem formulation is the first step in environmental risk assessment (ERA) where policy goals, scope, assessment endpoints, and methodology are distilled to an explicitly stated problem and approach for analysis. The consistency and utility of ERAs for genetically modified (GM) ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Use of Genetically Engineered Fruit Fly and Pink Bollworm in APHIS Plant Pest Control Programs: Final Environmental Impact Statement—October 2008

USDA/APHIS,  USDA/APHIS,  2008.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), in cooperation with several States and foreign countries, is proposing further development of genetically engineered fruit fly species and pink bollworm for use in various applications ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

RSPM No. 27 Guidelines for Importation and Confined Field Release of Transgenic Arthropods in NAPPO Member Countries

NAPPPO,  NAPPO Regional Standards for Phytosanitary Measures,  2007.
This Standard is designed to provide guidance to NAPPO member countries on the importation and confined field release of transgenic arthropods that are known plant pests or have the potential to affect plant health. This includes transgenic arthropods used for biological control ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Guidelines for the export, shipment, import and release of biological control agents and other beneficial organisms

International Plant Protection Convention,  Food and Agriculture Organization,  2005.
This standard provides guidelines for risk management related to the export, shipment, import and release of biological control agents and other beneficial organisms. It lists the related responsibilities of contracting parties to the IPPC, national plant protection organizations ...
Keywords: , , , , ,

Malaria Control with Genetically Manipulated Insect Vectors

L. Alphey, C. B. Beard, P. Billingsley, M. Coetzee, A. Crisanti, C. Curtis, P. Eggleston, C. Godfray, J. Hemingway, M. Jacobs-Lorena, A. A. James, F. C. Kafatos, L. G. Mukwaya, M. Paton, J. R. Powell, W. Schneider, T. W. Scott, B. Sina, R. Sinden, S. Sink,  Science,  298:119. 2002.
At a recent workshop, experts discussed the benefits, risks, and research priorities associated with using genetically manipulated insects in the control of vector-borne diseases.
Keywords: , , , , ,

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity,  Convention on Biodiversity,  2000:1-19. 2000.
The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement which aims to ensure the safe handling, transport and use of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on ...
Keywords: , , , , ,