Keywords: gene editing

Toward product-based regulation of crops

F. Gould, R. M. Amasino, D. Brossard, C. R. Buell, R. A. Dixon, J. B. Falck-Zepeda, M. A. Gallo, K. E. Giller, L. L. Glenna, T. Griffin, D. Magraw, C. Mallory-Smith, K. V. Pixley, E. P. Ransom, D. M. Stelly and C. N. Stewart,  Science,  377:1051-1053. 2022.
Current process-based approaches to regulation are no longer fit for purpose Much effort has been expended globally over the past four decades to craft and update country-specific and multinational safety regulations that can be applied to crops developed by genetic engineering ...
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CRISPR-Mediated Genome Engineering in Aedes aegypti

R. Sun, M. Li, C. J. McMeniman and O. S. Akbari,  piRNA: Methods and Protocols,  2022.
CRISPR-mediated genome engineering technologies have been adapted to a wide variety of organisms with high efficiency and specificity. The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegyptiAedes aegypti, is one such organism. It is also responsible for transmitting a wide variety of deadly ...
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Gene Editing and Genetic Control of Hemipteran Pests: Progress, Challenges and Perspectives

I. D. Pacheco, L. L. Walling and P. W. Atkinson,  Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology,  10. 2022.
The origin of the order Hemiptera can be traced to the late Permian Period more than 230 MYA, well before the origin of flowering plants 100 MY later in during the Cretaceous period. Hemipteran species consume their liquid diets using a sucking proboscis; for phytophagous ...
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What role can gene editing play in predator control? And are we ready to accept it?

K. Green,  Stuff,  2022.
The once-forbidden concept of gene editing for predator control is back on the table after two projects receivedGovernment funding. Despite advances overseas, experts are worried research in New Zealand will never make it out of the lab, with no plans to change current ...
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Recent advancements in CRISPR/Cas technology for accelerated crop improvement

D. Das, D. L. Singha, R. R. Paswan, N. Chowdhury, M. Sharma, P. S. Reddy and C. Chikkaputtaiah,  Planta,  255:109. 2022.
The likelihood of reduced agricultural production due to highly turbulent climatic conditions increases as the global population expands. The second paradigm of stress-resilient crops with enhanced tolerance and increased productivity against various stresses is paramount to ...
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The power of gene editing

The Economist,  The Economist,  2022.
Technologies such as genetic modification and ‘CRISPR’ will cure hereditary diseases, produce disease-resistant crops and enable the breeding of malaria-free mosquitos. But advances bring ethical and practical dilemmas. Genetically modified food is banned in the EU, and ...
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First ever gene-edited ticks offer new weapons against Lyme disease

N. Lavars,  New Atlas,  2022.
Gene editing in ticks had been thought to be impossible until now, and with good reason. Tick embryos are very tricky to inject because the egg that contains them has a tough layer on the outside, high pressure levels inside, and is also coated in a waxy layer the mothers create ...
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Insect Allies – Assessment of a Viral Approach to Plant Genome Editing

K. Pfeifer, J. L. Frieß and B. Giese,  Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management,  2022.
The DARPA program Insect Allies has already sparked scientific debate concerning technology assessment-related issues, among which the most prevalent is that of dual use potential. As apart from the issues concerning peaceful applications, the technology also provides the ...
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Gene Editing in the Wild: Shaping Decisions through Broad Public Deliberation

M. K. Gusmano, G. E. Kaebnick, K. J. Maschke, C. P. Neuhaus and B. C. Wills,  The Hastings Center Report,  51. 2021.
The essays in this special report grew out of a project funded by the National Science Foundation (with NSF award number 1827935). Gregory E. Kaebnick and Michael K. Gusmano were co-principal investigators on the project, and Karen J. Maschke and Carolyn P. Neuhaus were ...
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Deficits of Public Deliberation in U.S. Oversight for Gene Edited Organisms

J. Kuzma,  Hastings Center Report,  51 Suppl 2:S25-s33. 2021.
Environmental releases of gene edited (GEdOs) and gene drive organisms (GDOs) will likely occur under conditions of high uncertainty and in complex socioecological systems. Therefore, public deliberation is especially important to account for diverse interpretations of safety, ...
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Public Deliberation about Gene Editing in the Wild

M. K. Gusmano, G. E. Kaebnick, K. J. Maschke, C. P. Neuhaus and B. C. Wills,  Hastings Center Report,  51 Suppl 2:S2-s10. 2021.
Genetic editing technologies have long been used to modify domesticated nonhuman animals and plants. Recently, attention and funding have also been directed toward projects for modifying nonhuman organisms in the shared environment-that is, in the "wild." Interest in gene editing ...
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The Decision Phases Framework for Public Engagement: Engaging Stakeholders about Gene Editing in the Wild

S. K. Barnhill-Dilling, A. Kokotovich and J. A. Delborne,  Hastings Center Report,  51 Suppl 2:S48-s61. 2021.
Some experts and advocates propose environmental biotechnologies such as genetic engineering, gene drive systems, and synthetic biology as potential solutions to accelerating rates of species loss. While these tools may offer hope for a seemingly intractable problem, they also ...
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Public Perceptions Regarding Genomic Technologies Applied to Breeding Farm Animals: A Qualitative Study

F. Z. Naab, D. Coles, E. Goddard and L. J. Frewer,  BioTech,  10. 2021.
The societal acceptability of different applications of genomic technologies to animal production systems will determine whether their innovation trajectories will reach the commercialisation stage. Importantly, technological implementation and commercialisation trajectories, ...
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Genome editing and its applications for insect pest control: Curse or blessing?

Hacker, I. , and Schetelig, M. F,  AREA-WIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: Development and Field Application,  2021.
Gene and genome editing are described as cutting-edge research tools with the potential to tackle urgent global challenges in the management of agricultural pests and human disease vectors such as mosquitoes. The field is defined by the chances and challenges to interlink the ...
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Procedurally Robust Risk Assessment Framework for Novel Genetically Engineered Organisms and Gene Drives

Kuzma, J.,  Regulation and Governance,  15:1144-1165. 2021.
In this article, a new framework for improving risk assessments of novel genetically engineered organisms (GEOs) is developed and applied. The Procedurally Robust Risk Assessment Framework (PRRAF) provides a set of principles and criteria for assessing and enhancing risk ...
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Genome Editing Tools and Gene Drives: A Brief Overview (1st ed.).

R. Mudziwapasi, R. Chekera, C. Z. Ncube, I. Shoko, B. Ncube, T. Moyo, J. G. Chimbo, J. Dube, F. F. Mashiri, M. A. Mubani, D. Maruta, C. Chimbo, M. Masuku, R. Shoko, R. P. Nyamusamba and F. N. Jomane,  CRC Press,  2021.
Genome-editing methods are becoming routine tools for molecular and cell biologists. Such tools include ZFNs, CRISPR, megaTALs and TALENs. These tools are revolutionizing the creation of precisely manipulated genomes to modify the characteristics of organisms or cells. ...
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Versatile Applications of the CRISPR/Cas Toolkit in Plant Pathology and Disease Management

M. S. Wheatley and Y. N. Yang,  Phytopathology,  111:1080-1090. 2021.
New tools and advanced technologies have played key roles in facilitating basic research in plant pathology and practical approaches for disease management and crop health. Recently. the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) ...
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Sustainable Food Production: The Contribution of Genome Editing in Livestock

A. Menchaca,  Sustainability,  13. 2021.
This article is focused on the scope and perspectives for the application of this technology, which includes improving production traits, enhancing animal welfare through adaptation and resilience, conferring resistance to infectious diseases, and suppressing pests and invasive ...
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Genetic Manipulation of Ticks: A Paradigm Shift in Tick and Tick-Borne Diseases Research

A. Nuss, A. Sharma and M. Gulia-Nuss,  Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology,  11:7. 2021.
Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods that are distributed worldwide and are one of the most important vectors of pathogens affecting humans and animals. Despite the growing burden of tick-borne diseases, research on ticks has lagged behind other arthropod vectors, such as ...
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Emergent challenges for CRISPR: biosafety, biosecurity, patenting, and regulatory issues

Braddick, D. , and Ramarohetra, R. F.,  Genome Engineering Via Crispr-Cas9 System,  2021.
The recent advancements of CRISPR-Cas technologies have transformed this simple and efficient gene editing technique into an extraordinarily powerful tool. The most anticipated applications could create novel therapeutics against mankind's most serious afflictions and help ...
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Assisting Evolution: How Far Should We Go to Help Species Adapt?

E. Kolbert,  YaleEnvironment360,  2021.
It was a hot, intensely blue day in the Australian Outback, about 350 miles north of Adelaide. I was tagging along with Moseby as she checked the batteries on the motion-sensitive cameras that dot Arid Recovery, an ecosystem restoration project she and her husband launched in ...
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Should we dim the sun? Will we even have a choice

E. Klein,  New York Times,  2021.
“Under a White Sky” is going to be on my best books of 2021 list. It’s a wonderful work. Kolbert is the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of “The Sixth Extinction,” which you may have read. She is a staff writer at The New Yorker and just one of the great science ...
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In Our Image: The Ethics of CRISPR Genome Editing

J. C. Eissenberg,  Biomolecular Concepts,  12:1-7. 2021.
Here, I discuss the ethics surrounding the transformative CRISPR/Cas9mediated genome editing technology in the contexts of human genome editing to eradicate genetic disease and of gene drive technology to eradicate animal vectors of human disease.
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WHO Refers to GM Mosquitoes as Beneficial Technology

ISAAA,  Crop Biotech Update,  2020.
The World Health Organization (WHO) released its official statement to clarify its stance on the evaluation and use of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes and its use to control vector-borne diseases (VBD). WHO says it supports the investigation of all potentially beneficial ...
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Position of ARRIGE Scientific Committee on Gene Drive

ARRIGE Scientific Committee on Gene Drive,  ARRIGE Newsletter,  2020.
We are facing a change of paradigm that must lead us to be responsible for altered inheritance and the hybridization between artefacts, considered as natural or artificial, at the very moment when this division itself is blurred by the engineering capacity to act on mutations, ...
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Global citizen deliberation on genome editing

J. S. Dryzek, D. Nicol, S. Niemeyer, S. Pemberton, N. Curato, A. Bächtiger, P. Batterham, B. Bedsted, S. Burall, M. Burgess, G. Burgio, Y. Castelfranchi, H. Chneiweiss, G. Church, M. Crossley, J. de Vries, M. Farooque, M. Hammond, B. He, R. Mendonça, J.,  Science,  369:1435. 2020.
Here we show how, as the global governance vacuum is filled, deliberation by a global citizens' assembly should play a role, for legitimate and effective governance.
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Genome Editing in Food and Farming: Risks and unexpected consequences

J. Cotter and D. Perls,  Canadian Biotechnology Action Network,  2020.
J. Cotter and D. Perls (2020). Canadian Biotechnology Action Network. In this report, we provide an overview of genome editing techniques being explored in agriculture, and the range of potential unexpected effects that can arise from them. The report draws on recent scientific ...
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Socrates Untenured: Ethics, Experts, and the Public in the Synthetic Age

C. Preston,  ISSUES in Science and Technology,  2020.
C. Preston (2020). Three tools have transformed biotechnology over the past decade and a half. Gene reading has made it possible to quickly sequence the genome of any living creature. Gene synthesis has made it possible to construct DNA sequences in the lab from constituent ...
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Genome Editing 2020: Ethics and Human Rights in Germline Editing in Humans and Gene Drives in Mosquitoes

G. J. Annas,  American Journal of Law and Medicine,  46:143-165. 2020.
G. J. Annas (2020). American Journal of Law and Medicine. doi: 10.1177/0098858820933492. I begin with a discussion of so far disastrously unsuccessful attempts to regulate germline editing in humans, including a summary of the first application of germline genome editing in ...
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Engineering Bugs, Resurrecting Species: The Wild World of Synthetic Biology for Conservation

P. Rejcek,  Singularity Hub,  2020.
Imagine a world where a mosquito bite is just an itchy annoyance. No malaria. No dengue fever. Last month, scientists announced they had taken one more step toward that vision. A paper in the journal PLOS Pathogens described how they synthetically engineered mosquitoes to stop ...
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Beyond Mendelian genetics: Anticipatory biomedical ethics and policy implications for the use of CRISPR together with gene drive in humans.

M. W. Nestor and R. L. Wilson,  Journal of Bioethical Inquiry,  2020:1-12. 2020.
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) genome editing has already reinvented the direction of genetic and stem cell research. For more complex diseases it allows scientists to simultaneously create multiple genetic changes to a single cell. ...
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What is genome editing?

NHGRI,  NHGRI,  2019.
Genome editing is a method that lets scientists change the DNA of many organisms, including plants, bacteria, and animals. Editing DNA can lead to changes in physical traits, like eye color, and disease risk. Scientists use different technologies to do this.
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CRISPR-Cas9. The greatest advancement in genetic edition techniques requires an ethical reflection

Gomez-Tatay, LA, J.,  Cuadernos De Bioetica,  30:171-185. 2019.
The adaptation of the CRISPR system as a genetic editing tool has led to a revolution in many fields of application, as this technique is considerably faster, easier to perform and more efficient than predecessor techniques. However, some of these applications raise objective ...
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CRISPR Explained

Mayo Clinic,  Mayo Clinic,  2018.
A short video that simply explains what CRISPR is and how it is used for gene editing. Simple language and highly accessible.
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Gene Editing: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)

J. Oliver,  HBO,  2018.
Scientists are developing new ways to alter the genetic code of living organisms. John Oliver explores the risks, rewards, and wolf-related hazards of gene editing.
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What is CRISPR?

A. Vidyasagar,  LiveScience,  2018.
CRISPR technology is a simple yet powerful tool for editing genomes. It allows researchers to easily alter DNA sequences and modify gene function. Its many potential applications include correcting genetic defects, treating and preventing the spread of diseases and improving ...
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Economic issues to consider for gene drives

Mitchell, PDB, Z.; McRoberts, N.,  Journal of Responsible Innovation,  5:S180-S202. 2018.
We examine four economic issues regarding gene drive applications made possible by gene editing technologies. First, whether gene drives are self-sustaining or self-limiting will largely determine which types of organizations have incentives to develop and deploy gene drives and ...
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The use of gene editing to create gene drives for pest control in New Zealand

Royal Society Te Apārangi Gene Editing Panel,  Royal Society of New Zealand,  2017.
to explore the implications of gene editing technology for New Zealand, the Royal Society Te Apārangi has convened a multidisciplinary panel of some of New Zealand’s leading experts to consider the social, cultural, legal and economic implications of revolutionary ...
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Genome editing: scientific opportunities, public interests and policy options in the European Union

EASAC,  European Academies Science Advisory Council,  2017.
In many of the areas in which EASAC, the European Academies’ Science Advisory Council, works, where a large and solid body of knowledge is needed to inform the action of our societies, it is important to recognise that there is an intimate mix of science and values involved in ...
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